Diseases Affecting The Nails

Thelda Kestenbaum,M.D.* Primary Nail Diseases

Brittle.. Nails

Onychorrhexis

Ohychos,chizia,.„(Lamei,lar„Dyst,roph,y) MelanonychiaStriata

Nail. . Biting .iO.nychopha.gia)

Infections

Hangnails.. (Agnails) Ingrown.. Nails.iOnyc.ho.cryplos.is,)

Leukonychia

AllergicC.on.tact.. Reactions

Median. „N.ail.D.ys.trop.hy.lMedial. .Canaliform,..Dystrofi,hy) Habit.. jicDeformity

Nail. DiseaseSecondaryto. „Other ..,Dermat,os,e,s Onychomycosis

Warts

Eczematous.. .Eru.Btlons.Sf.. the.Nail. .Unit

Psoriasis ychen.Planus

Tw.enty-.NailP.yst.ro.phy

Nail. DiseaseSecondaryto. .Internal ..Disease Beau'sLines

Clubbed. Nails... (HiPPficraticNails) Koilo.nychia. . (Spoon. . .Nails) Terry's.N.ails „a.nd.„H„a.|f-and:Hlalf .Nails Muehrcke's .Lines Syphilis

Acquired.. Immunodeficiency.. Syndrome

OtherConditions. o.U.he ..Nails DruaReactions

Anonychia

Onychauxis

Onycholysis Yellow-Nail. Syndrome Pincer .Nails.. (Omega. .Nails) Bibliography

The most common nail dystrophies are caused by fungal infection, psoriasis, trauma, impaired circulation, and aging. Nail disease may be divided into (1) primary nail diseases, (2) nail dystrophies associated with cutaneous disease, and (3) nail dystrophies that reflect internal disease. There is considerable overlap between some of these categories.

Growth of fingernails is approximately 0.1 mm/day. Nails grow more rapidly on the middle finger than they do on the thumb or fifth finger. Toenails grow at one half or one third of the rate of fingernails. Diseases such as psoriasis or nail biting hasten nail growth. Old age and decreased circulation may slow nail growth.

Nail anatomy is discussed in Chap 1. The nail matrix is responsible primarily for the nail plate. Calcium only accounts for a small percent of the nail plate by weight, contrary to the opinon of many people.

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