History

1.1 Surgical Approaches 1

1.2 Tumor Removal 2

1.3 Diagnostic Imaging 3

1.4 Spinal Reconstruction and Fusion 3

1.5 Modern Advances 4

References 5

2 Anatomy

2.1 Cervical Spine 7

2.2 Thoracic Spine 10

2.3 Lumbar Spine and Sacrum 12

2.4 Spinal Biomechanics 14

2.5 Spinal Meninges 14

2.6 Spinal Cord and Nerve Roots 15

References 18

3 Intramedullary Tumors

3.1 History and Diagnosis 20

3.2 Neuroradiology 21

3.3 Surgery 40

3.3.1 Exposure 41

3.3.2 Tumor Removal 42

3.3.3 Closure 82

3.3.4 Adjuvant Therapy 82

3.4 Postoperative Results and Outcome 84

3.4.1 Tumor Resection 84

3.4.2 Clinical Results 85

3.4.3 Syringomyelia 88

3.4.4 Complications 89

3.4.5 Morbidity, Recurrences, and Survival 92

3.5 Specific Entities 97

3.5.1 Ependymomas 97

3.5.2 Astrocytomas 103

3.5.3 Angioblastomas 112

3.5.4 Hamartomas 114

3.5.5 Glioependymal Cysts 117

3.5.6 Cavernomas 123

3.5.7 Metastases 124

3.5.8 Melanocytomas 127

3.5.9 Gangliogliomas 127

3.5.10 Schwannomas 131

3.6 Conclusions 131

References 131

4 Extramedullary Tumors

4.1 History and Diagnosis 144

4.2 Neuroradiology 145

4.3 Surgery 167

4.3.1 Exposure 167

4.3.2 Closure 240

4.3.3 Adjuvant Therapy 240

4.4 Postoperative Results and Outcome 240

4.4.1 Tumor Resection 240

4.4.2 Clinical Results 241

4.4.3 Complications 244

4.4.4 Morbidity, Recurrences, and Survival 245

4.5 Specific Entities 248

4.5.1 Meningiomas 248

4.5.2 Nerve Sheath Tumors 260

4.5.3 Arachnoid Cysts 275

4.5.4 Hamartomas 286

4.5.5 Ependymomas of the Filum Terminale 300

4.5.6 Metastases 303

4.5.7 Angioblastomas 305

4.5.8 Cavernomas 305

4.5.9 Sarcomas 306

4.5.10 Hemangiopericytomas 306

4.5.11 Exophytic Astrocytomas 306

4.5.12 Tumors with Subarachnoid Seeding 306

4. 6 Management of Recurrent

Extramedullary Tumors 311

4.7 Conclusions 312

References 312

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