Typical human diets generally supply <30 |g V/day.220 Foods rich in vanadium (>40 ng/g) include shellfish, mushrooms, parsley, black pepper and some prepared foods. Cereals, liver and fish tend to have intermediate amounts of vanadium (5-40 ng/g). Beverages, fats and oils, fresh fruits and fresh vegetables generally contain <5 ng/g and often <1 ng/g.220
Upon the erroneous extrapolation of insulin-mimetic effects of vanadium to having anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, a proliferation of powders, beverages, formulas and supplements containing alarming amounts of vanadium appeared in the market. These supplements contained quantities of vanadium that could result in some individuals' consuming more than the 1.8 mg/day UL set by the FNB,51 and sometimes approaching the 14-20 mg/day that was found to have toxic effects in humans.220
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