Future Research Directions or Needs

Research is needed to determine the validity of having supplements containing high amounts of vanadium in the marketplace. This research should definitively establish the toxicity threshold for vanadium and determine whether long-term high consumption of vanadium could lead to pathological disorders such as hypertension.236,237 Studies are needed to determine whether supra nutritional, but non-toxic, intakes of vanadium enhance athletic performance or bone health. Definition of a biochemical function for vanadium at physiological intakes is needed before this element can be considered essential. Definition of an essential function would help differentiate between nutritional and pharmacological actions of vanadium and could be used to determine whether low dietary intakes of vanadium are of practical nutrition concern for the general public in addition to athletes. It is obvious that it is premature to recommend vanadium supplements for enhancing strength, muscle mass and athletic performance.

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