Super Memory Formula

Natural Medicine for Alzheimer Discovered

Get Instant Access

1. Zeisel SH, Da Costa KA, Franklin PD, Alexander EA, Lamont JT, Sheard NF, Beiser A. Choline, an essential nutrient for humans. FASEB J. 1991;5:2093-98.

2. Zeisel SH, Blusztajn JK. Choline and human nutrition. Ann Rev Nutr 1994;14:269-96.

3. Zeisel SH. Choline and phosphatidylcholine, in Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC (Eds.), Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999; p. 513-523.

4. Strecker A. Uber einige neue bestandtheile der schweingalle. Ann Chem Pharmacie 1862;123:353-60.

5. Stekol JA, Weiss S, Smith P, Weiss K. The synthesis of choline and creatine in rats under various dietary conditions. J Biol Chem. 1953;201:299-316.

6. Best CH, Huntsman ME. The effects of the components of lecithine upon deposition of fat in the liver. J Physiol 1932;75:405-12.

7. Wurtman RJ, Hirsch MJ, Growdon JH. Lecithin consumption raises serum-free-choline levels. Lancet 1977;2:68-69.

8. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998. p. 390-422.

9. Jellin JM, Gregory PJ, Batz F, Hitchens Kea. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 6th ed. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty; 2004.

10. Nagan N, Zoeller RA. Plasmalogens: Biosynthesis and functions. Prog Lipid Res. 2001;40:199-229.

11. Blusztajn JK, Wurtman RJ. Choline and cholinergic neurons. Science 1983;221:614-20.

12. Tong Z, Yamaki T, Harada K, Houkin K. In vivo quantification of the metabolites in normal brain and brain tumors by proton MR spectroscopy using water as an internal standard. Magn Reson Imaging 2004;22:735-42.

13. Cohen BM, Renshaw PF, Stoll AL, Wurtman RJ, Yurgelun-Todd D, Babb SM. Decreased brain choline uptake in older adults. An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. JAMA 1995; 274: 902-07.

14. Hirsch MJ, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ. Increase in hippocampal acetylcholine after choline administration. Brain Res 1977;125:383-85.

15. Dobransky T, Rylett RJ. Functional regulation of choline acetyltransferase by phosphorylation. Neu-rochem Res 2003;28:537-42.

16. Bierkamper GG, Goldberg AM. Release of acetylcholine from the vascular perfused rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm. Brain Res 1980;202:234-37.

17. Zeisel SH. Choline: Needed for normal development of memory. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:528S-531.

18. Conlay LA, Wurtman RJ, Blusztajn K, Coviella IL, Maher TJ, Evoniuk GE. Decreased plasma choline concentrations in marathon runners. N Engl J Med. 1986;315:892.

19. Phillips GB. The phospholipid composition of human serum lipoprotein fractions separated by ultra-centrifugation. J Clin Invest 1959;38:489-93.

20. Jope RS, Jenden DJ, Ehrlich BE, Diamond JM, Gosenfeld LF. Erythrocyte choline concentrations are elevated in manic patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980;77:6144-46.

21. Jope RS, Domino EF, Mathews BN, Sitaram N, Jenden DJ, Ortez A. Free and bound choline blood levels after phosphatidylcholine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982;31:483-87.

22. Holmes HC, Snodgrass GJ, Iles RA. Changes in the choline content of human breast milk in the first 3 weeks after birth. Eur J Pediatr. 2000;159:198-204.

23. Zierenberg O, Grundy SM. Intestinal absorption of polyenephosphatidylcholine in man. J Lipid Res. 1982;23:1136-42.

24. Klein J. Membrane breakdown in acute and chronic neurodegeneration: focus on choline-containing phospholipids. J Neural Transm. 2000;107:1027-63.

25. De La Huer, Popper H. Factors influencing choline absorption in the intestinal tract. J Clin.Invest 1952;31:598-603.

26. Le Kim D, Betzing H. Intestinal absorption of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in the rat. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1976;357:1321-31.

27. Blusztajn JK. Choline, A vital amine. Science 1998;281:704-05.

28. Stekol JA anderson EI, Weiss S. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine in the synthesis of choline, creatine and cysteine in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1958;233:425-29.

29. Conant R, Schauss AG. Therapeutic applications of citicoline for stroke and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: A review of the literature. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9:17-31.

30. Murugesan G, Sandhya Rani MR, Gerber CE, Mukhopadhyay C, Ransohoff RM, Chisolm GM, Kottke-Marchant,K. Lysophosphatidylcholine regulates human microvascular endothelial cell expression of chemokines. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003;35:1375-84.

31. von Allwörden HN, Horn S, Kahl J, Feldheim W. The influence of lecithin on plasma choline concentrations in triathletes and adolescent runners during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1993;67:87-91.

32. Zeisel SH, Mar MH, Howe JC, Holden JM. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. J Nutr. 2003;133:1302-07.

33. Cuadrado A, Carnero A, Dolfi F, Jimenez B, Lacal JC. Phosphorylcholine: a novel second messenger essential for mitogenic activity of growth factors. Oncogene 1993;8:2959-68.

34. Latorre E, Aragones MD, Fernandez I, Catalan RE. Platelet-activating factor modulates brain sphin-gomyelin metabolism. Eur J Biochem. 1999;262:308-14.

35. Yao ZM, Vance DE. Reduction in VLDL, but not HDL, in plasma of rats deficient in choline. Biochem Cell Biol. 1990;68:552-58.

36. Noga AA, Vance DE. Insights into the requirement of phosphatidylcholine synthesis for liver function in mice. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:1998-2005.

37. Kanter MM, Williams MH. Antioxidants, carnitine and choline as putative ergogenic aids. Int J Sport Nutr. 1995;5 Suppl:S120-S131.

38. Kwon ED, Zablocki K, Peters EM, Jung KY, Garcia-Perez A, Burg MB. Betaine and inositol reduce MDCK cell glycerophosphocholine by stimulating its degradation. Am J Physiol 1996;270:C200- C207.

39. Parnetti L, Amenta F, Gallai V. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001;122:2041-55.

40. Kim DK, Jung KY. Caffeine causes glycerophosphorylcholine accumulation through ryanodine-inhibitable increase of cellular calcium and activation of phospholipase A2 in cultured MDCK cells. Exp Mol Med. 1998;30:151-58.

41. Wong JT, Tran K, Pierce GN, Chan AC, O K, Choy PC. Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulates the release of arachidonic acid in human endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 1998;273:6830-36.

42. Okuda T, Haga T. High-affinity choline transporter. Neurochem Res 2003;28:483-88.

43. Du Vigneaud V, Cohn M, Chandler JP, Schenck JR, Simmonds S. The utilization of the methyl group of methionine in the biological synthesis of choline and creatine. J Biol Chem 1941;140:625-41.

44. Cermak JM, Holler T, Jackson DA, Blusztajn JK. Prenatal availability of choline modifies development of the hippocampal cholinergic system. FASEB J. 1998;12:349-57.

45. Li Q, Guo-Ross S, Lewis DV, Turner D, White AM, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder, HS. Dietary Prenatal Choline Supplementation Alters Postnatal Hippocampal Structure and Function. J Neurophysiol 2004; 91:1545-55.

Meck WH, Williams CL. Perinatal choline supplementation increases the threshold for chunking in spatial memory. Neuroreport 1997;8:3053-59.

Mellott TJ, Williams CL, Meck WH, Blusztajn JK. Prenatal choline supplementation advances hip-pocampal development and enhances MAPK and CREB activation. FASEB J 2004;18:545-47. Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Selvin S, Schaffer DM. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160:102-09. Buchman AL, Dubin MD, Moukarzel AA, Jenden DJ, Roch M, Rice KM, Gornbein J, Ament ME. Choline deficiency: a cause of hepatic steatosis during parenteral nutrition that can be reversed with intravenous choline supplementation. Hepatology 1995;22:1399-403.

Holm PI, Ueland PM, Kvalheim G, Lien EA. Determination of choline, betaine and dimethylglycine in plasma by a high-throughput method based on normal-phase chromatography-tandem mass spec-trometry. Clin.Chem. 2003;49:286-94.

Da Costa KA, Badea M, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Elevated serum creatine phosphokinase in choline-deficient humans: mechanistic studies in C2C12 mouse myoblasts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:163-70.

United States Department of Agriculture. 2004. Food and Drug Administration Department of HHS. Code of Federal Regulations; Title 21 — Food and Drugs; Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized as Safe. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003. D'Orlando KJ, Sandage BW, Jr. Citicoline (CDP-choline): Mechanisms of action and effects in ischemic brain injury. Neurol Res. 1995;17:281-84.

Wurtman RJ, Regan M, Ulus I, Yu L. Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;60:989-92.

Weiss GB. Metabolism and actions of CDP-choline as an endogenous compound and administered exogenously as citicoline. Life Sci. 1995;56:637-60.

Abbiati G, Fossati T, Lachmann G, Bergamaschi M, Castiglioni C. Absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of radiolabelled compounds in rats after administration of [14C]-L-alpha-glycerylphospho-rylcholine. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1993;18:173-80.

Physicians' Desk Reference for Nonprescription Drugs and Dietary Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Co.; 2003.

Conlay LA, Sabounjian LA, Wurtman RJ. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13 Suppl 1:S141-S142.

Sandage, B. W., Jr., Sabounjian, L. A., White, R. and Wurtman, R. J. Choline citrate may enhance athletic performance. Physiologist 35, 236. 1992.

Buchman AL, Awal M, Jenden D, Roch M, Kang SH. The effect of lecithin supplementation on plasma choline concentrations during a marathon. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19:768-70. Deuster PA, Singh A, Coll R, Hyde DE, Becker WJ. Choline ingestion does not modify physical or cognitive performance. Mil Med. 2002;167:1020-25.

Spector SA, Jackman MR, Sabounjian LA, Sakkas C, Landers DM, Willis WT. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27:668-73. Park DH, Ransone JW. Effects of submaximal exercise on high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol subfractions. Int J Sports Med. 2003;24:245-51.

Thompson PD, Crouse SF, Goodpaster B, Kelley D, Moyna N, Pescatello L. The acute versus the chronic response to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:S438-S445.

Hongu N, Sachan DS. Carnitine and choline supplementation with exercise alter carnitine profiles, biochemical markers of fat metabolism and serum leptin concentration in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003;133:84-89.

Daily JW, III Hongu N, Mynatt RL, Sachan DS. Choline supplementation increases tissue concentrations of carnitine and lowers body fat in guinea pigs. J Nutr Biochem 1998;9:464-70. Rein D Krasin B, Sheard NF. Dietary choline supplementation in rats increases carnitine concentration in liver, but decreases plasma and kidney carnitine concentrations. J Nutr Biochem 1997; 8:68-73.

Hongu N, Sachan DS. Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise. J Nutr. 2000;130:152-57.

Ulus IH, Wurtman RJ, Mauron C, Blusztajn JK. Choline increases acetylcholine release and protects against the stimulation-induced decrease in phosphatide levels within membranes of rat corpus striatum. Brain Res. 1989;484:217-27.

71. Zeisel SH. Choline: Human requirements and effects on human performance, in Marriott BM (Ed.) Food Components to Enhance Performance, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine; Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1994; p. 381-406.

72. Wurtman RJ, Hefti F, Melamed E. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacol Rev. 1980;32:315-35.

73. Warber JP, Patton JF, Tharion WJ, Zeisel SH, Mello RP, Kemnitz CP, Lieberman HR. The effects of choline supplementation on physical performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000; 10: 170-81.

74. Carter AL, Frenkel R. The relationship of choline and carnitine in the choline deficient rat. J Nutr. 1978;108:1748-54.

75. Dodson WL, Sachan DS. Choline supplementation reduces urinary carnitine excretion in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:904-10.

76. Sachan DS, Hongu N. Increases in VO(2)max and metabolic markers of fat oxidation by caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation in rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2000;11:521-26.

77. Klein J, Koppen A, Loffelholz K. Uptake and storage of choline by rat brain: influence of dietary choline supplementation. J Neurochem. 1991;57:370-75.

78. Harris CM, Dysken MW, Fovall P, Davis JM. Effect of lecithin on memory in normal adults. Am J Psychiat 1983;140:1010-12.

79. Ladd SL, Sommer SA, LaBerge S, Toscano W. Effect of phosphatidylcholine on explicit memory. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1993;16:540-49.

80. Tan J, Bluml S, Hoang T, Dubowitz D, Mevenkamp G, Ross B. Lack of effect of oral choline supplement on the concentrations of choline metabolites in human brain. Magn Reson Med. 1998; 39:1005-10.

81. Ikegami S. Behavioral impairment in radial-arm maze learning and acetylcholine content of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in aged mice. Behav Brain Res. 1994;65:103-11.

82. Crespo D, Megias M, Fernandez-Viadero C, Verduga R. Chronic treatment with a precursor of cellular phosphatidylcholine ameliorates morphological and behavioral effects of aging in the mouse [correction of rat] hippocampus. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1019:41-43.

83. Lee YB, Lee HJ, Won MH, Hwang IK, Kang TC, Lee JY, Nam SY, Kim KS, Kim E, Cheon SH, Sohn HS. Soy isoflavones improve spatial delayed matching-to-place performance and reduce cholinergic neuron loss in elderly male rats. J Nutr. 2004;134:1827-31.

84. Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF. Citicoline mechanisms and clinical efficacy in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci Res. 2002;70:133-39.

85. McDaniel MA, Maier SF, Einstein GO. "Brain-specific" nutrients: a memory cure? Nutrition 2003;19:957-75.

86. Moreno M. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Therap; 2003;25:178-93.

87. Shronts EP. Essential nature of choline with implications for total parenteral nutrition. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:639-46, 649.

88. Gaur SN, Agarwal G, Gupta SK. Use of LPC antagonist, choline, in the management of bronchial asthma. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 1997;39:107-13.

89. Gupta SK, Gaur SN. A placebo controlled trial of two dosages of LPC antagonist—choline in the management of bronchial asthma. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 1997;39:149-56.

90. Jacob RA, Jenden DJ, Allman-Farinelli MA, Swendseid ME. Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. J Nutr. 1999;129:712-17.

91. Daily JW, III, Sachan DS. Choline supplementation alters carnitine homeostasis in humans and guinea pigs. J Nutr. 1995;125:1938-44.

92. Freeman-Narrod M. Choline antagonism of methotrexate liver toxicity in the rat. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1977;3:9-14.

93. Rehman HU. Fish odor syndrome. Postgrad Med J 1999;75:451-52.

94. Canty DJ, Zeisel SH. Lecithin and choline in human health and disease. Nutr Rev. 1994;52:327-39.

Was this article helpful?

+1 0
Losing Weight Natures Way

Losing Weight Natures Way

Feel Healthier And Look Better Without Resorting To Drugs! Would you like to get your hands on a this report that can teach you everything you need to know about losing weight naturally?

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment