Two prerequisites are essential for good vision. The first is a clear optical focusing system. The main components of this (the cornea, lens and intraocular fluids) are designed to bring visual images to a focus on the retina, with the cornea contributing most of the refractive power of the eye. The second is an intact neural system, which detects and transmits images in a coherent fashion from the retina, through an intricate series of neural pathways, to the visual cortex, where they are perceived and interpreted. Ocular stem cell research has concentrated primarily on these two major components of the ocular system that are essential for maintaining clear vision: the ocular surface (comprising the cornea, limbus and conjunctiva) and the retina.

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