Pregnancy Miracle

The Pregnancy Miracle System

Get Instant Access

1. WolpertL, Hicklin J, HornbruchA. (1971) Positional information and pattern regulation in regeneration of hydra. Symp Soc Exp Biol 25: 391-415.

2. Brockes JP. (1997) Amphibian limb regeneration: Rebuilding a complex structure. Science 276: 81-87.

3. Kiessling AA, Anderson SC. (2003) Human embryonic stem cells. Boston: Jones and Bartlett.

4. Anderson DJ, Gage FH, Weissman IL. (2001) Can stem cells cross lineage boundaries? Nature 7: 393-395.

5. Bongso A, Richards M. (2004) History and perspective of stem cell research. In Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, eds. N. Fisk & J. Itskovitz, London: Elsevier Ltd.

6. Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine. (2001) Comm Biol Biomed Appl Stem Cell Res. Board of Life Sciences, NRC. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

7. Shamblott MJ, Axelman J, Wang S, et al. (1998) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 13726-13731.

8. Beattie GM, Otonkoski T, Lopez AD, et al. (1997) Functional beta-cell mass after transplantation of human fetal pancreatic cells: Differentiation or proliferation? Diabetes 46: 244-248.

9. Brustle O, Choudary K, Karram K, et al. (1998) Chimeric brains generated by intraventricular transplantation of human brain cells into embryonic rats. Nat Biotech 16: 1040-1044.

10. Villa A, Snyder EY, Vescovi A, et al. (2000) Establishment and properties of a growth factor dependent perpetual neural stem cell line from the human CNS. Exp Neurol 161: 67-84.

11. Rogers I, Casper RF. (2004) Umbilical cord blood stem cells. In Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, eds: N. Fisk & J. Itskovitz, London: Elsevier Ltd.

12. Mitchell KE, Weiss ML, Mitchell BM, etal. (2003) Matrix cells from Wharton's jelly form neurons and glia. Stem Cells 21: 50-60.

13. Stem Cell and Developmental Biology Writing Group's Report. (2004) Natl Inst Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Dses, NIH. 1-27.

14. Bianco P, Riminucci M. (1998) The bone marrow stroma in vivo: Ontogeny, structure, cellular composition and changes in disease. In Marrow Stromal Cell Culture. Handbooks in Practical Animal Cell Biology, ed. J.N. Beresford and M.E. Owen, p. 1025. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

15. Owen ME. (1988) Marrow stromal stem cells. J Cell Sci Suppl 10: 63-76.

16. Caplan AI. (1994) The mesengenic process. Clin Plast Surg 21: 429-435.

17. Jiang Y, Jahagirder BN, Reinhardt RL, etal. (2002) Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult bone marrow. Nature 418: 41-49.

18. Wright NA. (2000) Epithelial stem cell repertoire in the gut: Clues to the origin of cell lineages, proliferative units and cancer. Int J Exp Pathol 81: 117-143.

19. Burdick JS, Chung E, Tanner G, et al. (2000) Treatment of Menetrier's disease with a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor. New Eng J Med 343: 1697-1701.

20. Alison MR, Poulsom R, Forbes S, et al. (2002) An introduction to stem cells. J Path 197:419-423.

21. Alison MR, Vig P, Russo F, et al. (2004) Hepatic stem cells: From inside and outside the liver? Cell Prolif 37: 1-21.

22. Gronthos S, Zannettino AC, Graves SE, et al. (1999) Differential cell surface expression of STRO-1 and alkaline phosphatase antigens on discrete developmental stages in primary cultures of human bone cells. J Bone Miner Res 14: 47-56.

23. Nuttall ME, Patton AJ, Olivera DL, et al. (1998) Human trabecular bone cells are able to express both osteoblastic and adipocytic phenotype: Implications for osteopenic disorders. J Bone Miner Res 13: 371-382.

24. Metsaranta M, Kujala UM, Pelliniemi L, et al. (1996) Evidence for insufficient chondrocytic differentiation during repair of full thickness defects of cartilage. Matrix Biol 15: 39-47.

25. Nakajima H, Goto T, Horikawa O, etal. (1998) Characterization of cells in the repair tissue of full thickness articular cartilage defects. Histochem Cell Biol 109:331-338.

26. Shapiro F, Koide S, Glimcher MJ. (1993) Cell origin and differentiation in the repair to full thickness defects of articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg Am 75: 532-553.

27. Blanpain C, Lowry WE, Geohegan A, etal. (2004) Self-renewal, multipotency, and the existence of two cell populations within an epithelial stem cell niche. Cell 118: 530-532.

28. Reynolds BA, Weiss S. (1992) Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Science 255: 1707-1710.

29. Luskin MB. (1993) Restricted proliferation and migration of postnatally generated neurons derived from the forebrain subventricular zone. Neuron 11: 173-189.

30. Lois C, Alvarez-Buylla A. (1993) Proliferating subventricular zone cells in the adult mammalian forebrain can differentiate into neurons and glia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 2074-2077.

31. Seaberg RM, Van der Kooy D. (2002) Adult rodent neurogenic regions: The ventricular subependyma contains neural stem cells, but the dentate gyrus contains restricted progenitors. JNeurosci 22: 1784-1793.

32. Palmer TD, Ray J, Gage FH. (1995) FGF-2 responsive neuronal progenitors reside in proliferative and quiescent regions of the adult rodent brain. Mol Cell Neurosci 6: 474-486.

33. Mckay R. (1997) Stem cells in the central nervous system. Science 276: 66-71.

34. Gage FH. (2000) Mammalian neural stem cells. Science 287: 1433-1438.

35. Temple S. (2001) The development of neural stem cells. Nature 414:112-117.

36. Bottai D, Fiocco R, Gelain F, etal. (2003) Neural stem cells in the adult nervous system. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 12: 655-670.

37. Johansson CB, Momma DL, Clarke DL, et al. (1999) Identification of a neural stem cells in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Cell 96: 25-34.

38. Doetsch F, Caille DA, Lim JM, et al. (1999) Subventricular zone astrocytes are neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Cell 97: 703-716.

39. Laywell ED, Rakic P, KukekovVG, etal. (2000) Identification of a multipotency astrocytic stem cell in the immature and adult mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 13883-13888.

40. Zulewski H, Abraham EJ, Gerlach MJ, et al. (2001) Multipotential nestin positive stem cells isolated from adult pancreatic islets differentiate ex vivo into pancreatic endocrine, exocrine and hepatic phenotypes. Diabetes 50: 521-533.

41. Dor Y, Brown J, Martinez OI, et al. (2004) Adult pancreatic b cells are formed by self-duplication rather than stem cell differentiation. Nature 429: 41-46.

42. Seaberg RM, Smukler S, Kieffer TJ, et al. (2004) Clonal identification of multipotent precursors from adult mouse pancreas that generate neural and pancreatic lineages. Nature Biotech 22: 1115-1124.

43. Tropepe V, Coles BLK, Chiasson BJ, etal. (2000) Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye. Science 287: 2032-2036.

From Human Embryos to Clinically Compliant Embryonic Stem Cells: Blastocyst Culture, Xeno-free Derivation and Cryopreservation, Properties and Applications of Embryonic Stem Cells

Ariff Bongso*, Mark Richards and Chui-Yee Fong


The isolation of stem cells from human preimplantation embryos has been considered the biggest breakthrough of the 21st century. These mysterious cells aptly referred to as the "mother of all cells" hold promise in a new era of reparative medicine by providing an unlimited supply of different tissue types suitable for transplantation therapy (Fig. 1). Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be isolated from: i) surplus embryos left over after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment1-3; ii) embryos created specifically for this purpose4; and iii) from embryos created by somatic cell nuclear transfer.5 The latter two approaches are heavily charged with emotional and ethical implications while the first is less controversial. However, hESC research leading to prospective cures for a variety of incurable diseases has the potential to affect the lives of millions of people around the world, not through the prolongation of life but more through the improvement of the quality of life. Two major hurdles fundamental to hESC biology have to be overcome before purified hESC directed cells are used in clinical therapy, viz., a) hESC culture technology in vitro must be safe with

* Correspondence: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 119074. Tel: 65-67724260, fax: 65-67794753, e-mail: [email protected]

Human blastocyst

Human blastocyst

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment