Michelle Pepper MDa Venu Akuthota MDb Eric C McCarty MDc

aMedical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA cSports Medicine and Shoulder Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 311 Mapleton Avenue, Boulder, CO 80304, USA

As athletes continue to be more competitive in their desire to be the best, they will train exceptionally hard, sometimes to the point of injury. For society generally in the United States, there is a desire to have a better fitness level and the initial zeal of running or getting in shape will occur in such a rapid fashion that injuries will sometimes happen. A common type of injury seen in competitive as well as recreational athletes is the stress fracture. This type of fracture can arise when the stresses on the bone are greater than the capacity of the bone to withstand and heal from the stresses. An understanding of the science and adaptations that occur with human bones when they undergo stress activity is necessary when looking at the causes and pathophysiology of stress fractures.

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