The Emotion Centered Theory of Temperament Developed by Goldsmith and Campos

Goldsmith and Campos's conceptualizations on infant temperament are descriptive, multidimensional and emotion-oriented, This theory, also developed from the early 1980s has much in common with Rothbart and Derryberry's view on temperament, but with two main differences. First, Goldsmith and Campos, while not ignoring the biological aspects of temperament do not consider them as a definitional component of this construct. Second, they limit temperament to emotions whereas Rothbart and Derryberry...

Child Oriented Theories of Temperament

Categorization makes it possible to bring some order among the various temperament theories, but it also has some disadvantages in that it makes sharp distinctions between the classes of theories frequently this does not correspond with reality. For example, Thomas and Chess's theory of temperament was concentrated on infancy, whereas now the subjects followed for more than 30 years are adults. Buss and Plomin's theory of temperament originated in studies on children, but has been expanded to...

Strelaus Regulative Theory of Temperament

One of the few centers where research on temperament has developed under the strong influence of Pavlov's typology is the University ofWarsaw. Benefiting from the Russian ideas on temperament, Strelau and his coworkers also focused almost from the start on the research and theories of temperament developing in the 1950s and 1960s in both western Europe and the United States. Due to these influences the regulative theory of temperament (RTT) is rooted in many concepts and findings. My own...

Rusalovs Theory of Temperament Based on a Functional Systems Approach

In the 1960s Rusalov, originally an anthropologist, joined the Teplov-Nebyl-itsyn group which consisted of about a dozen researchers, among them Borisova, Golubeva, Gurevich, Leites, Ravich-Shcherbo, and Rozhdestvenskaya (for detail, see Strelau, 1983). All of them were involved in studying different aspects ofCNS properties, thus contributing basically to the development ofTeplov and Nebylit-syn's neo-Pavlovian theory. In the 1980s Rusalov introduced some new ideas to the neo-Pavlovian...

Kagans Inhibited and Uninhibited Temperaments

In referring to the classifications of temperament conceptualizations presented in Table 3.1, Kagan's theory can be described as a causal, monodimensional (typological) one tending to an emotion orientation, strongly concentrated on infancy and early childhood. In spite of Kagan's long career in developmental psychology, his interest in temperament, stimulated by his own experience as well as by ideas and findings in the literature, began less than two decades ago. As delineated by Jerome Kagan...

Pyknic Body Type

The physical makeup types distinguished by Kretschmer. Note. From K rperbau und Charakter Untersuchungen zum Konstitutionsproblem und zur Lehre von den Temperamenten Physique and Character Research concerning Problems of Constitution and Knowledge on Temperaments (17th-18th ed., pp. 18, 23, 27), by E. Kretschmer, 1944, Berlin, Germany Springer. Copyright 1944 by Springer Verlag. Reprinted with permission. vidual cases the following findings emerged among schizophrenics 50.3 are...

The Dimensions and Structure of Temperament

Eysenck's first attempts to develop a temperament theory consisted in a description of the main dimensions of the structure of personality or temperament (here used as synonyms). It should be emphasized once again that, according to Eysenck, temperament, that is the noncognitive aspects of personality (H. J. Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985, p. 353) is regarded as the phenomenon that comprises the dimensions discussed here. As early as 1944, Eysenck, under the influence of Jung's ideas and...

The Biological Theory of Sensation Seeking Developed by Zuckerman

Marvin Zuckerman is one of the very few differential psychologists who have been able to develop a theory of a temperament dimension, one which skillfully combines the correlational with the experimental approach, studies on humans with research on animals, and behavior characteristics with biochemical and psy-chophysiological measures. This multidirectional approach made it possible for the author to develop a causal theory of individual differences in sensation seeking. In terms of the...

Info

Sociability Shyness Resentment Publicself- Sensitivityto expressive behavior in others (A) Note. From Classification of Personality Traits, by A. H. Buss and S. E. Finn, 1987, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, pp. 435, 438-439. Copyright I987 by American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission. that the measuring instruments are usually much less reliable than those used in intelligence testing, it will become clear that personality is determined almost as much by...

Temperament and Behavior Disorders

More than three decades of NYLS research on temperament, together with studies conducted on other samples, such as mildly retarded children, children pre-natally infected with the rubella virus, prematurely born infants, and children from working-class families, allowed the authors to study in detail the relationship between temperament characteristics, especially the three temperament constellations mentioned earlier, and different kinds of behavior disorders. Behavior disorders were defined...

Mehrabians PAD Pleasure ArousabilityDominance Temperamen t Model

At the beginning of the 1980s, when Goldsmith and Campos introduced their emotion-centered theory of infant temperament, there already existed in the United States a broadly elaborated emotion-based theory of adult temperament developed in the 1970s by Mehrabian. It is strange that Mehrabian's contribution to studies on temperament was not cited by Goldsmith and Campos. Furthermore, temperament researchers, including those who deal with adults, have very rarely referred to Mehrabian's work. No...

The Biological Background of PEN

It was in the early 1950s that Eysenck started to concentrate on the question What are the causes of individual differences in extraversion and neuroticism The study conducted by H. J. Eysenck and Prell 1951 on the inheritance of neuroticism is regarded as the first behavior-genetic research in the personality domain. Since then, a series of behavior-genetic studies were conducted by Eysenck and his associates see Chapter 5 which led Eysenck to the following conclusion Broadly speaking, twin...

The Neuropsychological Model of Temperament Developed by Gray

In the 1970s Eysenck's most prominent student, Gray, undertook a thorough critique of his master's theory of extraversion and neuroticism, which led to the development of Gray's own neuropsychological theory of temperament or personality Gray used the terms interchangeably Gray, 1991 . This theory differs from all other temperament conceptualizations in that it is the most physiologically oriented one, supported by rich neurophysiological, pharmacological, and biochemical evidence, collected,...

The Developmental Model of Temperament Rothbart and Derryberry

The theory of temperament proposed in the beginning of 1980s by Rothbart and Derryberry 1981 Derryberry amp Rothbart, 1984, 1988 can be described as a developmental child-oriented , constitutional-psychobiological causal , and multidimensional approach, with concentration on children's whole behavior. This theory, further developed by Rothbart and her associates Rothbart, 1989a, 1989b, 1989c, 1991 Rothbart amp Mauro, 1990 Rothbart amp Posner, 1985 , gained great popularity among child-oriented...

Buss and Plomins Behavior Genetic Theory of Temperament

The most systematic and methodologically grounded approach to studies on temperament in children has been followed during the past two decades by Buss and Plomin. Among child-oriented conceptualizations on temperament their theory is the closest to fulfilling the requirements of a theory as postulated by Popper and Kuhn see Chapter 2 . Referring to the criteria depicted inTable 3.1, the child-oriented theory of temperament developed by Buss and Plomin may be characterized as a causal...