The temporoparietal fascia is the most superficial fascia layer beneath the subcutaneous fat (Fig. 12-5). This fascia is the lateral extension of the galea and is continuous with the superficial musculoaponeurotic layer (SMAS). It is frequently called the superficial temporal fascia or the suprazygomatic SMAS. It is easy to miss this layer completely when incising the skin, because it is just beneath the surface. The blood vessels of the scalp, such as the superficial temporal vessels, run along its superficial aspect closely related to the subcutaneous fat. On the other hand, the motor nerves, such as the temporal branch of the facial nerve, run on the deep surface of the temporoparietal fascia.
The subgaleal fascia in the temporoparietal region is well developed and can be dissected as a discrete fascial layer if desired, but it is usually used only as a cleavage plane in the standard Preauricular approach.
The temporalis fascia is the fascia of the temporalis muscle. This thick fascia arises from the superior temporal line and fuses with the pericranium. The temporalis muscle arises from the deep surface of the temporal fascia and the whole of the temporal fossa. Inferiorly, at the level of the superior orbital rim, the temporal fascia splints into medial border of the zygomatic arch. A small quantity of fat between the two layers is sometimes called the superficial temporal fat pad. A large vein frequently runs just deep to the superficial layer of temporalis fascia.
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