Positive Parenting Tips for Toddlers
Abstract Research has not provided unequivocal support for the recommendation to continue breastfeeding until children reach at least age 24 months. In many circumstances, breastfeeding duration is chosen or conditioned by factors other than scientific evidence and recommendations. Even in communities where breastfeeding into the second year is the nom, a significant number of toddlers are weaned before the recommended age. The research reported here was conducted in a rural community of western Kenya. We prospectively followed a cohort of 264 children for 6 months (mean age at baseline, 14.1 2.4 months) to examine the effect of variable breastfeeding duration on length and weight gain. We found that breastfeeding was positively associated with growth in a manner that we inferred to be causal, the effect being stronger on linear growth than on weight gain. This was despite the fact that in a cohort where 95 were breastfeeding at baseline, the prevalence of stunting (height-for-age...
The median duration ofbreastfeeding was 19.5 mo. Seventy percent of children breastfedbetween 12-15 mo, dropping to 41.3 between 21-23 mo. Among those toddlers who continued to breastfeed, the feeding frequency was about two feeds day lower at 21-23 months then during the 12-14 mo period.
Lings entertain, talk to, and play with their infant siblings. As the infants become toddlers, their siblings help and comfort them, and in turn the younger siblings find their older brothers and sisters attractive models, following where they go and imitating what they do.
Milestones (walking, complete dentition) and good appetite for family food, and mother-centered reasons, such as illness, Islamic fasting during Ramadan and desire for a new pregnancy, seemed important.30 However, in periurban Guinea-Bissau, the effect of illness on the duration of breastfeeding was ambigious.31 Most children were weaned because they were healthy or old enough (67.6 N 945), while a few were weaned because of child illness (7.3 ) or maternal illness (9.0 ). The last two groups were weaned significantly earlier than the former (medians of 19 and 18 months, respectively, vs. 23 months for the healthy children). It is difficult to know why both health and illness were reported as reasons to wean in this area. Weaning because of child's illness may be explained by so different reasons as hospitalization of the child without the mother,30 or mother's belief that her breastmilk caused the illness. In many settings, diarrhea of the breastfed toddlers, while the mother is...
Individuals of almost all ages develop friendships. Approximately 75 of preschoolers report having friends, and the percentage increases to over 90 by adulthood the proportion remains high through adulthood, although about 15 of the elderly report not having friends. It is debatable whether very young children have true friendships, although even toddlers prefer some playmates to others. Preschoolers' friendships are typically based on shared activities and tend to be less long-lasting than friendships
A was an attractive 27-year-old single white female who presented with a chief complaint of I look deformed. She had been convinced since she was a child that she was ugly, and her mother reported that she had constantly been in the mirror since she was a toddler. Ms. A was obsessed with many aspects of her appearance, including her crooked ears, ugly eyes, broken out skin, huge nose, and bushy facial hair. She estimated that she thought about her appearance for 16 hours a day and checked mirrors for 5 hours a day. She compulsively compared herself with other people, repeatedly sought reassurance about her appearance from her boyfriend and young
I am ten weeks pregnant and I can't cope with another miscarriage and losing another embryonic life. The first miscarriage wasn't too bad - I lost the baby early on, about six weeks. It would have been difficult to cope with a toddler and a newborn. But it did cross my mind that maybe the chemotherapy might have been responsible. I didn't even go to the doctor at the time - just got on with recovering and forgetting how it felt to flush all those early baby hopes down the toilet. But the second time was horrendous 16 weeks pregnant and I knew my baby. I'd seen her tiny form and felt her move inside me. I loved her and wanted her. I had so many dreams and then one day she was gone, with nothing to hold on to apart from my scan pictures. And I felt so bereft. I could not go through that again. I blame the chemotherapy now. Nobody told me it would do this but it cannot just be down to coincidence. If it hadn't been for those drugs my baby - even my babies - would still be alive. So this...
Preschool-age children may be unable to verbalize discomfort from RLS, which may be an unrecognized contributor to their bedtime resistance. Onset of symptoms of RLS can be as early as one to two years (6). An anecdotal recollection by the parent of a child with RLS (Table 1, subject 6) was that as a toddler, this patient was very difficult to put to sleep, and that the patient would fling legs so hard at bedtime that the patient almost ''broke the crib.''
G., Buckner, J. C., Brooks, M. G., Weinreb, L. F., & Bassuk, E. L. (1998). The developmental status and adaptive behavior of homeless and low-income housed infants and toddlers. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1371-1373. Crayton, L., Oliver, C., Holland, A., Bradbury, J., & Hall, S. (1998). The neuropsychological assessment of age related cognitive deficits in adults with Down's syndrome. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 11, 255-272. Doll, E. A. (1953). Measurement of social competence. Circle Pines,
Toddlers and older children may present with delayed motor milestones or difficulty walking. As in the evaluation of hypotonia, the differential diagnosis is broad, and may include almost any segment of the peripheral nervous system. Proximal weakness, often detected by the presence of Gowers sign, Trendelenburg gait, or both, typically suggests the possibility of Duchenne, Becker, or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. If such a patient has significantly elevated muscle enzyme levels, either molecular genetic testing or muscle biopsy will yield a diagnosis in most cases. When such an evaluation is unrevealing, an EMG may be useful in assessing the child for a neuropathic process, such as SMA type III (also known as Kugelberg-Welander disease). SMA type III may resemble a muscular dystrophy with a proximal distribution of weakness and a mild elevation of the creatine kinase level.
At 18 months, neurological condition was assessed using the age-specific neurological exam according to Hempel (1993). This technique focuses on the observation ofmotor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing, and walking) in a free field situation On the basis of this examination each toddler was classified as normal, mildly abnormal, or abnormal. The classification 'abnormal' implies the presence of an overt circumscript neurological syndrome, which usually leads to handicap in daily life, such as cerebral palsy. Mildly abnormal signifies the presence ofmild signs which do not necessarily lead to a handicapping condition, e.g. slight asymmetries, or mild hypo-, and hypertonia. The neurological findings were also evaluated by means of a list of 57 precept criteria for optimality. For each
Lung development begins on day 26 of gestation and continues through the toddler years. There are five phases in development. The embryonic period extends from day 26 through 52 of gestation. During this time, the primitive lung bud arises from the foregut, elongates caudally and branches to form the major airways. The pseudoglandular phase encompasses the time from day 52 through the end of 16
Goldsmith (1996 Goldsmith & Rieser-Danner, 1990 Goldsmith & Rothbart, 1991) developed a questionnaire for assessing infant temperament in the age range of 16-36 months. This inventory, known as the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ) was thought to be a parallel to Rothbart's IBQ for infants at a younger age (3-12 months). The TBAQ, guided by the Goldsmith-Campos emotion-oriented theory of temperament, is a 108-item inventory composed of the following five scales Activity Level, Pleasure, Social Fearfulness, Anger Prone-ness, and Interest Persistence. Reliability of the five scales as measured by Alpha scores is satisfactory (from .78 to .83 for 18-month-old toddlers from .86 to .89) and intercorrelations between the scales do not extend beyond the value of .37 (Pleasure versus Interest Persistence). For 18-month-old children the highest correlation was between the Activity and Anger Proneness scales .48 (Goldsmith, 1996). Correlations with other measures of temperament,...
The giant intestinal roundworm, Ascaris lum-bricoides, is a common parasite with worldwide distribution. Adult worms are 15-35 cm (6-14 inches) long and reside in the lumen of the small intestine. Sometimes, however, they are passed in the feces and, if vomited into the oral cavity, may exit from the host's mouth or nostrils thus they have been known to medical observers for millennia. Female worms produce up to 200,000 fertilized eggs daily, which are passed in the feces. Eggs incubate in soil for at least 2-3 weeks to produce an infective larval stage within them. The eggs are resistant to chemicals, desiccation, and extreme temperatures but mature or em-bryonate most rapidly in warm, moist, shady conditions in clay soils. People become infected by eating embryonated eggs in contaminated food or water or, in the case of toddlers, infection occurs by direct ingestion of eggs with dirt. Poor rural sanitation and the use of human feces for fertilizer obviously favor transmission....
From a psychological perspective, emotional neglect is the most serious form of neglect, in that the consequences of ongoing emotional neglect are lifelong An emotionally deprived child becomes an adult who rarely experiences the joy, love, and intimacy that make life worth living. Emotional neglect begins in infancy. If babies cannot establish normal attachments, perhaps because their caregivers are depressed, drug-addicted, emotionally immature, or overwhelmed by their own survival needs, then infants and toddlers become detached from social relationships. The damage occurs within the brain, during formation of synapses and dendrites, and thus is difficult to reverse later on.
Tetanus occurs worldwide and is considered endemic in 90 developing countries, but its incidence varies considerably among them. The most common form of the disease, neonatal (umbilical) tetanus, kills at least 500 000 infants each year simply because their mothers were not immunized. Over 70 of these deaths occur in just 10 tropical Asian and African countries. Various customs, such as using dung, dirt or local butter (ghee) to pack the umbilical stump, often are responsible for infant infection.12'13 In addition, an estimated 15 000-30 000 unimmunized women worldwide die each year from maternal tetanus, the result of post-partum, post-abortal or post-surgical wound infection with C. tetani.14 In the United States approximately 50 cases of tetanus are reported each year, mostly in persons aged 60 years or older, but cases in toddlers and neonates also occur.15
The tiptoe gait characteristic of beginning toddlers should give way to an adult-like pattern by 2 years of age. Neuromuscular conditions such as cerebral palsy or spinal cord lesions such as spina bifida, tethered cord, and diastematomyelia can produce foot deformity, which can be appropriately evaluated diagnostically or referral made if toe walking persists beyond age 2.
Electrodiagnostic studies are highly dependent on technique in adults, but are even more dependent on technique in children. Infants and toddlers do not understand the purpose of the study, have a limited tolerance for discomfort, and often squirm and withdraw during testing. In selected cases, sedation or general anesthesia is required to obtain adequate data. Topical anesthetic creams are used in some pediatric EMG laboratories, which can help reduce pain, As in adults, a brief history and focused physical examination is critical in directing the tests performed, especially because they may be terminated prematurely. If the child is old enough to understand the procedure, it is important to explain it to the child as well as the parent. It is sometimes possible to convince younger children that the EMG machine is a tickling machine for nerve conduction studies the power of suggestion being quite effective. Infants may be more comfortable sitting in a parent's lap on the examination...
Atopic dermatitis (Fig.SS- ) a hereditary disorder usually beginning around 1 to 4 months of age. In infants the involvement is usually of the face, scalp, trunk, and extremities. Toddlers have involvemennt of flexural skin and adolescents have involvement of hands and feet. There may also be hypopigmented scaly lesions on cheeks and arms referred to as pityriasis alba.
The anal stage extends approximately from one year of age to two, when bowel and bladder control is a primary task, and the pleasure and pain derived from expelling and retaining feces are the main libidinal outlet. The toddler in the anal period is growing in independence and self-assertion. Freud saw the events surrounding the task of toilet training as crucial for later character formation. A child who is harshly trained and severely punished for accidents before acquiring control may express rage by defecating at will at inappropriate times or by being selfish and stingy (anal retentive). Conversely, the child who is rewarded and praised for control efforts becomes the generous (anal expulsive) and often creative individual. Overindulgence can lead to messiness and vagueness (Maddi, 1972, p. 273).
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