E

figure 5-6 Localization and measurement of the length of components of the upper airway and of a lesion. A telescope is just within the bronchoscope to locate the tip of the bronchoscope precisely. A, With the tip of the bronchoscope at the carinal spur, distance is measured and recorded between the incisor teeth (or upper gingival ridge) and a proximal fixed point on the bronchoscope. Similar measurements are made with the bronchoscopic tip successively at the lower edge of the lesion (B), the upper edge of the lesion (C), the lower edge of the cricoid (D), and/or at the vocal cords. E, Recording of measurements and approximate lengths (by subtraction).

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