figure 23-1 Incisions for approach to the upper trachea. A, A collar incision is electively placed 1 cm above the clavicular heads. Length is determined by the extent of superior exposure required. B, Extension for upper mediastinal access (cervicomediastinal resection). The vertical arm of the cutaneous incision reaches just below the sternal angle. The sternum is also divided just beyond the angle (dashed line). It is unnecessary to divide the bone laterally at the distal end since it will fracture appropriately as the retractor is opened. C, An apron incision allows the same access but removes most of the incision from the neck.

Bronchoscopy Form

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