Tracheobronchomegaly, seen in Mounier-Kuhn syndrome, is an abnormal diffuse dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi.90-92 The diagnosis of tracheobronchomegaly is usually apparent on chest radiographs, CT, or MRI. Typically, there is protrusion of the mucosa through the trachealis muscle between the cartilaginous rings, producing a scalloped or corrugated appearance of the trachea and main bronchi (Figure 4-66). There is often an abrupt transition between the dilated lobar bronchi and normal segmental bronchi. patients with this disorder may have repeated respiratory infections leading to peripheral bronchiectasis.

figure 4-63 Tracheal lymphoma. A, Anteroposterior tracheal tomogram reveals a smooth stenosis of the proximal trachea with an hourglass configuration. B, Computed tomography scan demonstrates thickening of the tracheal wall.

figure 4-64 Chondrosarcoma of the trachea. A, Posteroanterior chest radiograph demonstrates a large mediastinal mass that deviates and partially obstructs the mid and distal trachea. B, Computed tomography scan through the midtrachea reveals a large soft tissue mass containing calcification that encircles and narrows the trachea, consistent with a chondrosarcoma arising from the trachea.

figure 4-65 Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with laryngeal invasion. A, Lateral view of the neck shows a posterior supraglottic laryngeal-pharyngeal mass. B, Computed tomography section reveals a mass to the right and posterior to the larynx. There is destruction of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage on the right, with intraluminal tumor extension (asterisk).

Tracheobronchomegaly is also seen in association with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, cutis laxa, and ataxia telangiectasia (immune deficiency syndrome), and with diffuse pulmonary fibrosis.

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