Control of the anteroposterior position of lower incisors

In Class II treatment, the challenge is normally to bring the lower incisors sufficiently forward to coordinate them with the PIP for the upper incisors, as determined in Stage 1 of the treatment planning. This is true both in Class 11/1 treatment, and in the second phase of Class 11/2 treatment, after initial upper arch alignment has converted the case into effectively a Class N/1 malocclusion.

In orthodontic treatment mechanics, the lower incisor A/P position relative to the upper incisors can be changed by three main factors:

1. Movement of lower incisors in the mandibular bone (Fig. 7.28)

2. A change in the length of the mandible (Fig. 7.29)

3. A change in the A/P position of the mandible, due to changes in the position of the condyles in the fossae Fig-

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