1 Tweed, C H 1966 Clinical orthodontics. Mosby, St Louis

2 The 'A' Company Straight-Wire Appliance. An eight page descriptive brochure. 'A' Company, San Diego, CA, USA

3 Bennett J C, McLaughlin R P 1990 Controlled space closure with a preadjusted appliance system. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 24:251-260

4 Samuels R H, Rudge S J, Mair L H 1993 A comparison of the rate of space closure using a nickel-titanium spring and an elastic module: a clinical study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 103:464-467

5 Nattrass C, Ireland A J, Sherriff M 1997 An investigation into the placement of force delivery systems and the initial forces applied by clinicians during space closure. British Journal of Orthodontics 24:127-131

6 Nattrass C, Ireland A J, Sherriff M 1998 The effect of environmental factors on elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs. European Journal of Orthodontics 20:169-176

7 Samuels R H, Rudge S J, Mair LH 1998 A clinical study of space closure with nickel-titanium closed coil springs and an elastic module. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 114:73-79

8 Pizzoni L, Ravnholt G, Meisen B 1998 Frictional forces related to self-ligating brackets. European Journal of Orthodontics 20:283-291

9 O'Reilly D, Dowling P A, Lagerstrom L, Swartz M L, 1999 An ex vivo Investigation into the effect of bracket displacement on the resistance to sliding. British Journal of Orthodontics 26:219-227

10 Ouchi K, Koga M, Watanabe K, Issiki Y, Kawada E 2001 The effects of retraction forces applied to the anterior segment on orthodontic arch wires - changes in wire deflection with wire size. Presented to southern California component of Edward H Angle Society. In press.

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