Issues for discussion when the HIV test result is positive

° General health (good diet, balance of rest and exercise, avoiding infections, when to seek advice about symptoms of other HIV-related illnesses). ° Avoidance of preganancy.

° Awareness of possible anti-TB drug side-effects. ° A positive result is an entry point to medical care of HIV-related diseases, to chemoprophylaxis for opportunistic infections and possibly to ART. ° Safe sexual behaviour. ° Avoidance of blood or organ donation. ° The person's reaction to the test result. ° Emotional and psychological support for the person. ° How to tell friends, family and sexual partners. ° Counselling of partner(s) if possible.

° Referral to local community services and support groups, if available. ° Social implications, e.g. employment, life assurance.

I I SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING I I

UNAIDS policy on HIV testing and counselling. Geneva, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, 1997.

UNAIDS Technical Update. HIV testing methods. Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, 1997, UNAIDS Best Practice Collection.

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization. Operational characteristics of commercially available assays to determine antibodies to HIV-I and/or HIV-2 in human sera. Report II. Geneva, 1999. WHO/BTS/99.1; UNAIDS/99.5.

UNAIDS Technical Update.Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Geneva, 2000, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, Best Practice Collection.

Volberding PA. HIV quantification: clinical applications. Lancet, 1996, 347: 71-73.

World Health Organization. Revised recommendations for the selection and use of HIV antibody tests. Weekly epidemiological record, 1997, 72: 81-83.

World Health Organization.The importance of simple and rapid tests in HIV diagnostics: WHO recommendations. Weekly epidemiological record, 1998, 73: 321-328.

World Health Organization. Increasing access to knowledge of HIV status: conclusions of a WHO consultation, 3-4 December 2001, WHO/HIV/2002.09.

World Health Organization. Testing and counselling. Geneva, 2002 http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/vct/testing (accessed 8 May 2003).

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