Other Forms Of Extrapulmonary Tb

Other forms of extrapulmonary TB are less common. There is no information as to whether they occur any more frequently in HIVpositive than in HIV-negative individuals. The table below shows the usual clinical features and diagnostic tests.

Site of disease

Clinical features

Diagnosis

Gibbus

Psoas abscess

Radicular pain

Spinal cord compression

Plain X-ray Tissue biopsy

Bone

Chronic osteomyelitis

Tissue biopsy

Peripheral joints

Usually monoarthritis especially hip or knee

Plain X-ray Synovial biopsy

Gastrointestinal

Abdominal mass Diarrhoea

Barium X-ray

Liver

Right upper quadrant pain and mass

Ultrasound and biopsy

Renal and urinary tract

Urinary frequency Dysuria Haematuria Loin pain/swelling

Sterile pyuria Urine culture Intravenous pyelogram Ultrasound

Adrenal gland

Features of hypoadrenalism (hypotension, low serum sodium, normal/high potassium, raised urea, low glucose)

Plain X-ray

(calcification)

Ultrasound

Upper respiratory tract

Hoarseness and stridor

Pain in ear

Pain on swallowing

Usually complication of pulmonary disease

Female genital tract

Infertility

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Pelvic examination X-ray genital tract Ultrasound pelvis Tissue biopsy

Male genital tract

Epididymitis

Often evidence of renal/urinary tract TB

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