Other Forms Of Extrapulmonary Tb

Other forms of extrapulmonary TB are less common. There is no information as to whether they occur any more frequently in HIVpositive than in HIV-negative individuals. The table below shows the usual clinical features and diagnostic tests.

Site of disease

Clinical features



Psoas abscess

Radicular pain

Spinal cord compression

Plain X-ray Tissue biopsy


Chronic osteomyelitis

Tissue biopsy

Peripheral joints

Usually monoarthritis especially hip or knee

Plain X-ray Synovial biopsy


Abdominal mass Diarrhoea

Barium X-ray


Right upper quadrant pain and mass

Ultrasound and biopsy

Renal and urinary tract

Urinary frequency Dysuria Haematuria Loin pain/swelling

Sterile pyuria Urine culture Intravenous pyelogram Ultrasound

Adrenal gland

Features of hypoadrenalism (hypotension, low serum sodium, normal/high potassium, raised urea, low glucose)

Plain X-ray



Upper respiratory tract

Hoarseness and stridor

Pain in ear

Pain on swallowing

Usually complication of pulmonary disease

Female genital tract


Pelvic inflammatory disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Pelvic examination X-ray genital tract Ultrasound pelvis Tissue biopsy

Male genital tract


Often evidence of renal/urinary tract TB

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