Primary chemoprophylaxis in adults Industrialized countries

The table shows the opportunistic infections, the indications and the drug regimens commonly recommended for primary prophylaxis in industrialized countries. Primary prophylaxis refers to preventing a first episode of disease in an HIV-positive individual. Primary prophylaxis is not routinely recommended against herpes viruses (herpes simplex, varicellazoster and cytomegalovirus) or fungi.

Primary prophylaxis recommended in industrialized countries

Pathogen

Indications

Drug regimen (First Choice)

Pneumocystis carinii

CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 history of oral candidiasis unexplained weight loss

AIDS-defining event (e.g.TB)

fever of unknown origin

trimethoprim 80 mg/ sulfamethoxazole 400 mg (TMP-SMX) 2 tablets daily

Toxoplasma gondii

CD4+ lymphocyte count < 100/mm3

trimethoprim 80 mg/ sulfamethoxazole 400 mg (TMP-SMX) 2 tablets daily

M. avium complex (MAC)

CD4+ lymphocyte count < 50/mm3

azithromycin 1200 mg once per week OR

clarithromycin 500 mg twice per day

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