In most cases, the cause is not known. So treatment in these cases is empirical. Some cases (probably due to Isospora belli) respond to treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Other cases (probably due to Microsporidia) respond to treatment with metronidazole or albendazole.

Sometimes you do find a specific cause of diarrhoea. Many of the treatable causative pathogens are common in unsanitary environments. The table shows specific causes with the appropriate treatment.

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