World War Ii Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

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World War II Landmark

Prior to the 1940s, the vast majority of psychologists were associated with universities and were conducting basic research. World War II brought with it an unprecedented range of problems that required rapid scientific attention. Not all aviator recruits were created equal in their ability to fly planes, and selection methods were needed to determine those best suited for piloting. Elsewhere in the war scenario, a highly sophisticated Nazi propaganda network challenged our effective counterresponse. American citi

World War Ii Through The 1970s The Psychoanalytic Era

Although psychoanalytic ideas have been percolating in American psychology since Freud and Jung's visit to Clark University in 1909, the full impact of depth psychology on psychiatry had to await the massive exodus of psychoanalysts to England and America with the onslaught of World War II. As these energetic immigrants captivated American psychiatry with remarkable speed, there was a dramatic shift toward the psy-chodynamics of the mental apparatus, as well as the controversy that still surrounds talking cures. The overconfidence of this revolution, especially in the often successful treatment of war-trauma-induced neuroses, allowed new approaches such as clinical psychology to become established as a distinct discipline, along with the resulting proliferation of new psychotherapeutic ideas. Although we now recognize that certain psychotherapies can modify the executive functions of the brain concentrated primarily in frontal lobe areas (Baxter et al., 1992 Schwartz et al., 1996),...

Two Renaissances Ofbreastfeeding Inthe 20th Century

In 1940, in the middle of the 2nd World War, fertility again started to increase and culminated in an true baby boom in all European countries. This baby boom reached its peak in 1964. Curiously, in this children-loving atmosphere, the wings ofbreastfeeding enthusiasm began to become lame and the ardour for breastfeeding reached its nadir at the beginning of the seventies.

Three Giants Of The First Half Of The 20th Century

The three pioneers who set the stage for thinking throughout the modern phase of 20th-century psychiatry were Emil Kraepelin (1855-1926) in Germany, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) in Austria, and Adolph Meyer (1866-1950) in America. The influence of Kraepelin's perspective, derived from the successes of German neurology, has been most pervasive, yielding a lasting influence on our conceptualization of what a comprehensive psychiatry should look like. Kraepelin, now widely regarded as the titular father of biological psychiatry, started his academic work at Dorpat University at the edge of the German empire of medical science (now the University of Tartu, Estonia), where he wrote the first edition of his seminal Textbook of Psychiatry, which went through nine editions between 1883 and 1927. That contribution propelled him to Heidelberg and ultimately to Munich as the implicit leader of German psychiatry. Recognition of his seminal diagnostic and pathophysiological thinking remained...

American Psychological Association Code Of Ethics

The American Psychological Association (APA) promulgated the first Code of Ethics for psychologists in 1953. Based on the work of a committee organized in 1947 (Canter, Bennett, Jones, & Nagy, 1994), this publication had further basis in the work of another committee, this one formed in 1938 and devoted to ethical concerns. The for-malization and codification of ethical standards was ultimately a response to the increasing professionalization of psychology, a development that began during World War II.

Local Anesthetics Vasoconstrictors and Injection Locations

Local anesthetics 3 and vasoconstrictors 12 also play an important role in minimizing postoperative pain and improving the surgical field during endo-scopic sinus surgery. There are a myriad of mixtures and protocols used for local anesthesia and vasoconstriction. Two basic classes for local anesthetics exist the amino esters and the amino amides. Cocaine, a naturally occurring amino ester, was the first anesthetic to be discovered and was introduced into Europe in the 1800s. Lidocaine, an amino amide, is the most widely used cocaine derivative and was developed during World War II.

History And Epidemiology Of Epidemic Typhus

It is difficult to confirm that past diseases classically considered to be typhus were in fact epidemic typhus, before the description of its clinical and epidemiological entities (3,4) during the sixteenth century (when the presence of an exanthema allowed its distinction from typhoid fever). However, the Napoleonic Wars were an example of the terrible consequences of a combination of war and cold. The Grand Army marched to Moscow with 550,000 men and only 3000 came back. It is likely that 20 of the troops died of typhus (1,5). Typhus reemerged during World War I, but the Russians experienced the most terrible outbreak during the revolution between 1917 and 1925, when 25 million people were infected and three million died (6). During World War II, typhus was prevalent in Northern Africa and in Central and Eastern Europe, where terrible outbreaks occurred in concentration camps (7). Typhus has slowly declined since the end of the World War II, and the last reports of outbreaks were in...

Clinical Graduate Training In Psychology

Clinical graduate training has undergone many changes during the past 50 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) responded to an increased need for psychological services after World War II by developing a model curriculum for the training of psychologists. In 1948, the APA granted accreditation to 35 doctoral programs. In 1949, the Boulder Conference promulgated a scientist-practitioner model for instruction. Although many institutions continue to adhere to this model, the 1973 Vail Conference proffered a scholar-practitioner approach that ultimately led to the granting of the Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree. This model emphasized practice-related skills with less focus on the production of research. U.S.-trained doctoral-level applied psychologists may have the Ph.D., Psy.D., or Ed.D., and all complete a 12-month applied internship as an integral component of their education. Many new graduates elect to complete postdoctoral training to specialize or enhance skills.

History of the Lyophilization Technique

Up to World War II, the lyophilization technique was used only on a laboratory scale. The sudden increase of demands in freeze-dried blood plasma resulted in its application on an industrial scale. In the first post-war years, the freeze-drying method was applied to various antibiotics, and very quickly became a valuable method of preserving medicinal products.

Coagulation and its Disorders A History of Haematological Research

Abstract Studies of blood coagulation had originated among the 'animal chemists' of the 18th and early 19th centuries (Chapter 4), but were placed on a firmer footing in the 1830s by Andral's pioneering compilation of medical knowledge and by Buchanan's experimental studies. The history of blood coagulation research from the time of Andral and Buchanan to the present day can be arbitrarily divided into four phases. The third and fourth phases, covering the period between the Second World War and the present, were explored in Chapter 2. This chapter concerns the first two phases. Phase 1 extended from Buchanan's publications to the maturation of Schmidt's 'classical hypothesis' the action of thrombin was identified and the existence of prothrombin and antithrombins was inferred. These advances were underpinned by a philosophical movement mechanistic materialism marginalised the role of cells in blood function and focused attention on the soluble components of the plasma. Phase 2,...

Counseling as Therapy

Around 1940, the dominance of the guidance model began to erode by the end of the decade it was replaced by psychotherapy, an intervention often associated with a more medically oriented setting. A number of factors contributed to the decline. Part of the downfall coincided with social changes brought on by the end of the Depression and the beginning of World War II. People were confronted with rapid social change that seemed to broadly affect their lives.

Definitional Models of Counseling Psychology

Counseling psychology, alone among the helping professions, pays particular attention to the role of occupation in the lives of people. Indeed, the profession derives much of its identity from the vocational guidance movement. With the post-World War II rise of affluence and the decline of

Crosscultural Training Programs

The vast majority of research and careful thinking about cross-cultural training has taken place since World War II. Reasons include the greater movement of students who take advantage of educational opportunities in countries other than their own, increases in technical assistance programs, the increased availability of jet travel, the development of global marketplaces, increases in the number of programs aimed at person-to-person contact across cultural boundaries (e.g., the Peace Corps and youth exchange programs), and increases in the number of independent countries, which necessitates greater amounts of diplomatic contact. In addition to preparing people to live in countries other than their own, cross-cultural training programs also are designed to help people work effectively with culturally different individuals within their own country. For example, programs have been designed for Anglo social workers who are about to work with refugees from southeast Asia and for...

Insecticides As Herbicides

Just as the deleterious effects of herbicides are not confined to plants, so other pesticides can incidentally diminish plant growth. The persistent organochlorine pesticide DDT, which was widely used against insects after World War II, had many adverse effects on non-target species.32,33 In the 1960s, DDT was shown to have her-bicidal effects on cereals, especially barley, rye and wheat. Some varieties were more susceptible than others, and this was linked to possession of a dominant allele at a specific gene locus. Two sites of inhibition of photosynthesis were eventually characterised.34 These sites of inhibition are distinct from those where Group C herbicides act. In addition, DDT inhibits translocation of sugar from the leaves.35 How many other pesticides still in common use are also herbicides, and what hidden yield reductions have conventional farmers been putting up with

Preventing Thyroid Exposure from Radioactive Fallout

By using potassium iodide, we can prevent thyroid cancer from radioactive iodine fallout. Potassium iodide blocks radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland by providing so much iodine that it overwhelms the ability of the gland to take up radioactive iodine. This is the only specific way to protect against thyroid cancer triggered by radioactive iodine fallout potassium iodide has no protective effect against any other kind of radiation. Potassium iodide is available through pharmacies. In the event that there is an alert about a potential nuclear attack (such as a terrorist threat), ask your doctor about the best way to obtain potassium iodide.

Toxin Research Between 1900 And 1975

Since the discovery of the first three major bacterial protein toxins, about 100 new protein toxins produced by a number of Gram-positive and to a lesser extent from Gram-negative bacteria were identified during the first half of the twentieth century. Much effort was particularly focused on anaerobic clostridial species and their toxins as a result of the experience gained during World War I gas gangrene on the battle field. Research on other toxins during the 1900-1965 period was also developed on toxinogenic anaerobes and certain aerobic bacterial pathogens, such as staphylo-cocci, streptococci, Bacillus anthracis, and on various membrane-damaging toxins from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

The Pvalue Love Affair in Healthcare

In addition, the intense quantification of healthcare research, starting in the 1930's was an important new trend, boosting the utility of inference testing and p-value implementation. World War II, with its requirement for new, improved medicine and delivery of healthcare services to both soldiers and refugee populations, produced a surge in healthcare research. Research teams, including such renowned groups as the Medical Research Council (MRC) of England, were assembled to develop not just new medications, but new research methodology as well.* These efforts explored, and in many cases embraced, the use of statistical hypothesis testing.

The Persistence of the Phlebitis Concept

Slowing of the circulation, vascular injury, toxic effects (notably on the blood corpuscles) and bacteraemia, along with changes in coagulability, were listed in various combinations by Wilson (1912), Duckworth (1913) and Aschoff (1924). Aschoff had conducted extensive studies of outstanding quality during the First World War, which we shall discuss later. Well into the 1930s (before antibiotics became available), some authors continued to presume that infection had a pivotal role in thrombosis, along with trauma, dehydration, intimal injury and interrupted circulation (e.g. Bancroft and Stanley-Brown 1932). This was presumably because each new generation was baffled to explain why and how words such as thromboplebitis had been inducted into its lexicon. After the Second World War it became apparent that antibiotics did not decrease the incidence of DVT (Gibbs 1957), and the idea is seldom mentioned nowadays thrombosis is only occasionally, and indirectly, associated with infection....

Stasis and the Consensus Model of DVT Aetiology

14 Aschoff (1922, 1924) inferred from his studies of First World War victims that retardation of circulation contributed to thrombosis, but also believed that hypovolaemia resulting from wound haemorrhages contributed, contracting the circulating volume and the vascular bed. Unluckily, blood transfusion and volume replacement were then in their infancy. Aschoff's detailed work and careful interpretations of his observations were well regarded by subsequent workers in the field, but his point about the thrombogenic potential of hypovolaemia elicited little further comment (cf. Richards 1944). Operative blood loss and the risks attendant on a depleted blood volume during and after surgical procedures have been underestimated by many physicians, but were re-emphasised by e.g. Le Quesne (1967) and Delikan (1972). Aschoff's work will be discussed in detail in later chapters it is curious that he made no mention of valves in his discussions of DVT - this may have contributed to the...

History Of Clinical Psychology

Before World War II, clinical psychology was a small field. However, even before 1945, the repertoire of clinical psychologists in the area of mental testing expanded greatly, establishing its pattern for the remainder of the century. Herman Rorschach (1884-1922), a Swiss psychiatrist, developed the Rorschach inkblot test. In 1943, psychologist Starke R. Hathaway (1903-1984) and psychiatrist J. C. McKinley published the first edition of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The Journal of Consulting Psychology, now one of the premier journals in clinical psychology, was established in 1937 during its first decade, it was devoted largely to professional issues and to advances in mental testing. After World War II, clinical psychology was newly supported by government funds and expanded enormously. In the United States, the Veterans Administration and the National Institute of Mental Health requested information about which universities provided adequate training in clinical...

The Ethics Of Stem Cell Research

In the minds of many, a stem cell therapy that requires the destruction of human embryos hark back to the cruel experiments that prisoners were forced to endure at the hands of the Nazis during World War II. The association is not as far-fetched as it may at first appear. The problems associated with stem cell research are closely related to the ethical problems affecting biomedical research in general. These issues were analyzed in the Belmont Report (1976) in response to abuses of basic human rights inflicted upon medical research subjects, dating back to World War II. This chapter will discuss the ethics of stem cell research in the context of that report while leaving the legal questions to the next chapter.

Social Psychology of International Relations

The systematic use of psychological concepts and methods for the development of theory, research, and policy studies in international relations is a relatively new area of specialization within social psychology. Following World War II, various studies of national stereotypes, attitudes toward war and peace, nationalism, and international affairs made significant contributions to an improved understanding of international relations. Generally interdisciplinary in character, these social-psychological approaches deal with the problems of interaction among nations, often with a goal of reducing tension and promoting international cooperation. Among the kinds of research that deal specifically with the international behavior of individuals are studies of national stereotypes or images, attitudes toward inter

Organized Psychology at the International Level

The development and status of psychology in different countries and regions of the world vary considerably. As one would expect, the most highly developed scientific psychology exists in North America, Europe, and Japan. Rapid growth in the post-World War II period has also occurred in Australia, Brazil, and Mexico, with several other countries of Latin America and Asia close behind. Surveys of trends in the development and status of psychology throughout the world, as reviewed by Mark Rosenzweig (1992), editor of International Psychological Science, suggest that there are well over a half million recognized psychologists throughout the world. The most rapid growth has occurred among practitioners rather than research scientists. The greatest concentration exists in the United States and Canada, followed closely by Western Europe. If one could count all the individuals engaged in some kind of psychological research or practice, the actual number would be far greater. International...

Cloning Humans and Cloning Animals

Rotblat Will cloning cause the instant annihilation of tens of thousands of people, and the slow death from a debilitating illness of thousands more, as the atoms bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki did Will cloning ever have the power to destroy all life on Earth, as nuclear weapons do today It hardly seems likely. Most couples prefer to have children who are genetically their own, if they can. Infertile couples will, if they can produce eggs and sperm, go through repeated cycles of IVF in order to conceive a child, even when adoption of the use of donor sperm would be a simpler means of having a child. And if a few people did give birth to clones of Mick Jagger, Madonna, Michael Jordan, or Jane Goodall, would that be such a terrible thing We might pity the children, who could be under great pressure to live up to the talents of those from whom they were cloned, but to compare their problems with those of the victims of nuclear weapons, as Dr. Rotblat did, is...

Aschoff on the Coagulation of Cadaver Blood

Aschoff (1922) presented 41 First World War autopsy records, including 11 cases of gassing on the battlefield. These soldiers had presumably died of gross respiratory (as opposed to circulatory) failure, with severe arterial and venous hypoxaemia. In none of his 11 cases was there any sign of coagulum, buffy coat or cruor in the heart or in any blood vessels, so there was no stratification. This retrospective evidence of incoagulable, thrombus-free blood confirmed that hypoxia does not 'cause' thrombosis. The blood in the dying or dead hypoxic vascular channels was itself dying from that same 'universal' hypoxaemia, so it could not coagulate and no thrombus

Other clostridial diseases

Other forms of necrotizing enteritis have occurred endemically in New Guinea (pigbel37), epidemically in Germany following World War II (Darmbrand38), and sporadically in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the United States (see Chapter 12).19'20 All cases are associated with the ingestion of meats contaminated with C. perfringens type C. Clinical courses vary between abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea which resolve spontaneously, to bloody diarrhea, ruptured bowel, and death (3-toxin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these infections. The toxin paralyzes the intestinal villi, and causes friability and necrosis of the bowel wall. Predisposing factors include malnutrition, specifically in patients with diets low in protein and rich in trypsin inhibitors such as sweet potato or soy bean.37'38 Ascaris lumbricoides is commonly found in such patients and it, too, secretes a trypsin inhibitor. These protease inhibitors protect (i-toxin from intraluminal proteolysis.

A42 Some Contributing Factors to the Hegemony of Mechanism

The change seems to have occurred after the Second World War, when governments in developed countries poured money into academic scientific and medical research, and perceived 'growth areas' such as biochemistry were favoured. A number of highly able physicists, disaffected by the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, turned to biology Francis Crick was an example. Such developments fostered the physico-chemical approach to biology and medicine, and ipso facto the mechanistic frame of reference. The consensus model of DVT and the implicit sidelining of Virchow's legacy date from this post-War period.

The Role of Endothelial Hypoxia in DVT

Abstract There is a mid-20th century literature on the relationship between venous endothelial hypoxia and thrombosis, as well as an abundance of more recent cell and molecular biological papers. Discussion of the more recent publications will be deferred until Chapter 12. In the present chapter, the implications of the older literature are discussed in relation to the proposal in Chapter 9 hypoxic death of the parietalis endothelium caused by VVP hypoxaemia during intermittent periods of non-pulsatile (streamline) flow is instrumental in DVT. Published micrographs of venous thrombi are re-evaluated to elaborate this proposal and illustrate the thrombogenic process stage-by-stage. Our account also relates to the induction of DVT-like changes by non-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning, the margination of leukocytes on hypoxic endothelia, Aschoff's autopsies of First World War victims, and recent conflicting evidence about 'traveller's thrombosis'.

Child Guidance Clinics

The National Committee for Mental Hygiene marshaled the child guidance clinic movement, which spanned the decades of the 1920s to 1940s. Child guidance clinics were established for the psychiatric study, treatment, and prevention of juvenile delinquency, other social ills, and conduct and personality disorders in 3- to 17-year-old non-mentally retarded children. The child guidance clinic approach to children's mental health represented a shift from traditional treatment models of the era, which were largely individual psychoanalytically oriented play therapy sessions conducted by a psychiatrist or psychologist, toward more innovative modes of intervention. Child guidance clinics' comprehensive, community-based approach to children's mental health service was carried out by multidisci-plinary teams of psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric social workers, speech therapists, and psychiatric occupational therapists. In the 1940s the mental health focus shifted from the child guidance...

Carinal Resection and Reconstruction

Figure 3 Henry Eschapasse, MD, Chief of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Service Emeritus, Regional Hospital Center of Toulouse, and Professor Emeritus, University of Toulouse. In the decades post World War II, there was great interest and activity in tracheal surgery and pathology in France. Dr. Eschapasse was a leader in this field, and especially interested in the study of primary tracheal neoplasms and carinal reconstruction. Toulouse became a center for tracheal surgery.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Chopin, Keats, Thoreau, Paginini, Modigliani, Elizabeth Browning, and Thomas Wolfe died of tuberculosis. y y y In the beginning of the 20th century, tuberculous meningitis was common then after the Second World War a dramatic decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis occurred in the United States and Europe. Tuberculosis and CNS tuberculosis continued to be prevalent in developing countries. Beginning, however, in 1985 the incidence rates of tuberculosis began to increase in the United States. This resurgence of disease was concentrated among males, 25 to 44 years of age, and particularly among immigrants from areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis infection. A marked increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in long-term residents of American nursing homes was also noted. CNS tuberculosis is considerably more frequent in individuals with AIDS and tuberculosis involving other organ systems than in immunocompetent persons with tuberculosis. In some...

Abridged Dictionaryindex

Pustular Bacterid

Described in the South Pacific and in the desert in World War II. Soldiers showed increased sweating of neck and face and anhidrosis (lack of sweating) below the neck. It was accompanied by weakness, headaches, and subjective warmth and was considered a chronic phase of prickly heat.

Major Life Events and Blood Pressure

Likewise, witnesses of a deadly explosion in Texas in the 1940s (Ruskin, Beard, and Schaffer, 1948) and bombings of Leningrad during World War II (Miasnikov, 1961) exhibited elevated blood pressures for various durations of time following exposure to these life-threatening events. Recently, comparable blood pressure elevations were observed in a man residing in New York City who witnessed the tragedy of September 11, 2001, in which thousands were killed in the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center towers (Lipsky, Pickering, and Gerin,

Is Csm An Epidemic Or Sporadic Disease

For most of the twentieth century, meningitis in the developed countries followed a pattern of small, local epidemics and scattered cases, mostly among children. The two world wars caused major spurts as military authorities crammed recruits into crowded barracks. For example, there were 5,839 cases and 2,279 deaths among U.S. soldiers during World War I. In 1942 and 1943, however, although there were 13,922 military cases, thanks to new therapy there were only 559 deaths. Moreover, except for a spurt to about 14 cases per 100,000 people in 1942, civilian case rates in the United States have remained under 4 per 100,000 since the late 1930s. Total meningococ-cal infections have rarely exceeded 3,000 a year, but reported cases of aseptic meningitis have risen steadily. Africa has had two kinds of experience with the disease. In most of the continent, meningitis is a sporadic disease, behaving much as it does in the West, although often with higher incidence and fatality rates. However,...

Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase G6PD Deficiency

The first documented report of drug-induced (as opposed to fava-bean-induced) hemolytic anemia appeared in 1926 following the administration of the antimalarial drug pamaquine (Plasmoquine). During World War II, after the world's primary sources of quinine were captured by the Japanese, about 16,000 drugs were tested for antimalarial effectiveness. In 1944, an Army Medical Research Unit at the University of Chicago studying these potential antimalarial drugs encountered the problem of drug-induced anemia. Research by this group over the next decade elucidated the basic information on G6PD deficiency.

Background To Stevia Sweetener Development In Japan

Stevia sweeteners in Japan were originally developed as alternative sweeteners for Japanese seasonings. Used in various Japanese foods for several hundred years, soy sauce is the most popularJapanese seasoning and is generally formulated with high levels ofsalt (sodium chloride) for preservation and flavoring. In the early part of the twentieth century, the suppressing effect of a decoction from roots of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) on the saline taste of soy sauce was recognized. Since then, the use of licorice sweetener (glycyrrhizin) has expanded to various salty foods such as Japanese-style pickles, dried seafood, and miso (soybean paste). The use of licorice sweetener continued to grow until production was stopped during the Second World War. When production started again in 1950, saccharin and dulcin were already being used as inexpensive alternative sweeteners in response to the sugar shortage. Though cyclamate was also approved as a sweetener in 1956, the use of licorice...

Rosenbach History Of Tetanus 1886

Given that soldiers often have fought in well-manured farmland and do not have clean skins, and that until very recently armies lived in close proximity to horses used for transport and cavalry, it is not surprising that tetanus was a common problem in wounded soldiers. In 1808, for example, the rate of tetanus before immunization was 12.5 per 1,000 by contrast, the rate was only 0.04 per 1,000 in World War II. World War I saw the general introduction of early, near-universal use of antitoxin, accompanied by meticulous debridement of wounds. The effect of these measures may be seen in the British army. Incidence was 8 per 1,000 wounded from August to October 1914. As improved wound management and routine antitoxin use developed, the rate fell to 1.5 per 1,000 wounded. World War I patients, perhaps because the antitoxin produced a forme fruste, had a syndrome of local tetanus - not fatal, and usually confined to one extremity. U.S. forces, entering the war in 1917, had the advantage of...

Mechanism Of Action Of Chemotherapy

The alkylating agents are amongst the oldest anticancer agents still in use today. They were initially investigated as therapeutic agents after it was noted during the First World War that troops exposed to nitrogen mustard 'nerve gas' subsequently developed bone marrow suppression (Hirsch, 2006).

Introduction To Radiotherapy

RT involves the use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of malignant disease. Conventional external-beam treatments are administered with high-energy photon beams, typically with energy of 1.25 megaelectron volts (MV) to 15 MV or higher. These energies significantly exceed those of x-rays used in diagnostic radiology. The high energy of therapeutic radiation beams enables the treatment to penetrate the body and to be used to treat deep tissues. Depending on the actual energy, only several percent of the energy of the photon beam is absorbed per centimeter of tissue. Routine availability of high-energy radiation sources in the years after World War II dramatically increased the clinical usefulness of RT. Previously, only low-energy radiation sources, which emitted radiation that was absorbed to a significant extent by superficial tissues, were widely available. These low-energy beams required that an excessive (and often toxic) dose of radiation be delivered to the surface of the...

History of Ulcerative Colitis

Worldwide attention was directed to the disease at the 1935 International Congress of Gastroenterology, and the amount of literature increased rapidly after this. By the 1940s, ul-cerative colitis was recognized more often than Crohn's disease. However, by the end of World War II, Crohn's disease had become more frequent. Concurrently with an apparent stabilization of ulcerative colitis in the United States, Crohn's disease has been the more prominent.

Heart Related Diseases

This conceptual change was particularly apparent regarding a military ailment once called DaCosta's syndrome and later - at the start of World War I - soldier's heart. Afflicted by breathlessness and a feeling of impending doom, soldiers with this syndrome were initially

Clostridium Perfringens Type C Enteritis A Backgroundepidemiology

Locally referred to as 'Darmbrand' (or 'fire-bowels') in Germany where outbreaks occurred in the post-World War II period and as 'pigbel' in Papua New Guinea where it was originally associated with ritual pork feasts.81'82 Several lines of evidence have implicated the (3-toxin produced by C. perfringens type C as the primary virulence factor in this disease, including serological studies in surviving patients, ' reproduction of the lesions in guinea pigs, and the clinical efficacy of a toxoid vaccine in an area in which the organism is endemic.85'86 The epidemiology of this disease has been best described in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea where the disease is endemic and affects primarily children under the age of 13 years (see Chapter 12).88 Outbreaks of necrotizing enteritis have been reported from countries in South and Southeast Asia, Africa, and in northern Germany in the late 1940s.81'98 105 Careful bacteriological studies have not been performed in most of these studies and...

Denton Cooley Inventor and Pioneer Surgeon

Although he was interested in medicine, he was worried that the academic track to a medical degree was too difficult. This fear was put to rest when he achieved the highest grades in his college fraternity. Soon after, Cooley transferred into medicine and eventually graduated from Johns Hopkins Medical School. During World War II, he also interned at Johns Hopkins, training under Dr. Alfred Blalock, where he

Aschoff on Post Mortem Clots

Pathologist (as distinct from a haematologist) felt obliged to express himself in the early 20th century.1 Remarkably, the autopsy studies on First World War victims (Aschoff 1922), discussed in Chapter 10, refuted this convoluted argument in favour of 'post-mortem coagulation'.

Continuation of the Pathophysiological Perspective Welch and Aschoff

We have quoted these extracts in extenso to highlight the unresolved admixture of vital-materialist and mechanistic thinking in Aschoff's work. We shall return to his excellent First World War autopsy studies in a later chapter. Despite the mechanistic elements in his work, Aschoff (1866-1942) seems to have been the last pathologist to carry forward Virchow's paradigm of disease (cellular malfunction pathophysiology), a finger in the dyke to restrain the tide of mechanistic materialism that proceeded during the 20th century to wash away

Heart Surgeon and Public Servant in the USSR

Went to the city of Cherepovets, where I worked as a surgeon for a year before World War II broke out. They were recruiting to the military field hospital in Cherepovets, where there was a need for a chief surgeon. I was offered the spot and served in this hospital throughout the war.

The Heart Lung Machine

The solution to this great riddle came in the years after World War II. Teams of doctors at major hospitals enlisted the help of teams of engineers, in some cases at the country's largest corporations, and the race was on to develop a heart-lung machine that could support circulatory function while doctors stopped the heart. Gibbon's work was interrupted in 1942 by World War II but resumed after the war ended and he was appointed professor of surgery and director of the surgical research laboratory at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. During his tenure there, Gibbon met Thomas Watson, chairman of International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation. Watson was fascinated by Gibbon's research and promised to help

Lll European Economic Council Directives and Regulations

The peaceful application of nuclear reactors after World War II initiated the production of large quantities of radionuclides, which were introduced to medicine for the investigation of human physiology and disease. The application of radioactive tracers for clinical diagnosis and therapy increased by the year, resulting in the widespread use of radioisotopes in clinical procedures.

Michael W De Boisblanc Donald D Trunkey

Major liver injuries were rarely treated with resection before 1940. Experience gained with penetrating injuries during World War II encouraged operative treatment with initial resection. However, this wartime experience was poorly applied to the civilian population, and mortality rates remained high, around 50 . Liver d bridement and packing were reintroduced in the 1980s, and some surgeons advocated this approach as the treatment of choice. During this time, the segmental anatomy of the liver was described, and experience with segmental resection of tumors was gained. Vascular isolation techniques and liver transplantation added greatly to the overall knowledge of hepatic surgery.

Retrieval and Mapping

The sense that multiple constraints converge on a solution that satisfies as many different constraints as possible (Thagard, 2000). Everyday use of analogies depends on the human ability to find coherent mappings -even when source and target are complex and the mappings are ambiguous. For example, political debate often makes use of analogies between prior situations and some current controversy (Blanchette & Dunbar, 2001, 2002). Ever since World War II, politicians in the United States and elsewhere have periodically argued that some military intervention was justified because the current situation was analogous to that leading to World War II. A commonsensical mental representation of World War II, the source analog, amounts to a story figuring an evil villain, Hitler misguided appeasers, such as Neville Chamberlain and clearsighted heroes, such as Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The countries involved in World War II included the villains, Germany and Japan the...

Q Fever As A Bioterrorism Agent

Q fever is the ideal biological warfare agent in that it is easily dispersed as an aerosol, and there is a very high infectivity rate with pneumonia as the major manifestation. The resulting infection results in incapacitation with very rare mortality. The agent forms spores, and secondary wind-borne spread of the spores can occur. There is no damage to the environment.

Opportunistic and Iatrogenic Infections

During World War II, for example, ringworm symptoms disappeared in prisoners held under starvation conditions only to reappear on the restoration of a full diet. Tinea capitis (M. audouinii) in children, although persistent, resolves spontaneously at puberty for reasons not fully understood. Tinea pedis has been claimed as an occupational disease of workers who wear heavy boots. Candida infection is affected by pregnancy, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes are frequently associated with it. Iatrogenic mycoses have resulted from the use of antibacterials. Moreover, immuno-suppressive drugs used in organ transplantation have resulted in Candida endocarditis and my-cotic septicemia. Antimycotic therapy is now a routine supplementary practice.

Historical And Current Patterns On Occupational Cancer Risks

Exposures encountered at the workplace are a substantial source of cancer, as has been known for over 200 years (Pott, 1775). Occupational cancers were initially detected by clinicians. From early findings of Pott of scrotal cancer among chimney sweeps in 1775 to Creech and Johnson's identification of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride workers in 1974, unusual cancer patterns among persons with unusual occupations amounted to sufficient evidence to judge that the occupational exposure had caused the cancer (Creech and Johnson, 1974). Pott was a physician treating chimney sweeps and Creech was a physician who treated vinyl chloride monomer workers. The era of initial identification of occupational cancer by clinicians extended into the last quarter of the twentieth century. The period of formal epidemiological assessment of the occurrence of cancer in relation to workplace exposures started after the Second World War, and knowledge of the occupational and other...

Psychological Tests in Personnel Screening

The use of personality tests in employment screening has a long tradition the first formal use of a standardized personality scale in the United States was implemented to screen out World War I draftees who were psychologically unfit for military service (Woodworth, 1920). Today, personality tests are widely used for personnel screening in occupations that require great public trust. Some occupations, such as police officers, airline flight crews, fire fighters, nuclear power plant workers, and certain military specialties require greater emotional stability than most other jobs. Maladaptive personality traits or behavior problems in such employees can result in public safety concerns. For example, someone who behaves in an irresponsible manner in a nuclear power plant control room could significantly endanger the operation of the facility and the safety of the surrounding community. The potential for problems can be so great in some high-stress occupations (e.g., air traffic...

The Coagulation Cascade and the Consensus Model of DVT

Abstract The development of the blood coagulation 'cascade' concept after the Second World War, together with the increasing clinical use of anticoagulant and (later) thrombolytic treatment, is briefly reviewed and related to the origin of the consensus model. It is suggested that the consensus model arose from a research tradition that was essentially unrelated to thrombosis, and that its articulation entailed an effective, if unintended, suppression of Virchow's pathophysiological viewpoint (as defined in the preface to this book) and also marginalised studies of the venous endothelium in relation to DVT. It is notable that Virchow's explicit distinction between 'clot' and 'thrombus' was not preserved during this process Virchow had hypothesised that thrombi are analogous to clots, but he knew the limitations of the analogy. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to a more or less detailed overview of the coagulation cascade as it is understood today. These details are included...

Radiation Exposure to the Neck During Childhood

Besides XRT, nuclear fallout usually contains radioactive iodine isotopes that carry radiation directly to the thyroid gland if they enter the body. Recent reports from the National Cancer Institute in the United States suggest that thousands of people have been placed at risk for developing thyroid cancer from their exposure to radioactive fallout from aboveground atomic testing in the 1950s and 1960s. The risk is particularly significant in people exposed to fallout from testing in the Marshall Islands during 1954. The association of nuclear fallout with thyroid cancer was first recognized in the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Anaemia

Few authors since the Second World War have elaborated on the theme of carbon monoxide and vascular endothelial damage. Fowler (1954) described a case of leg gangrene following CO inhalation. An interesting paper by Fujita et al. (2001) showed that CO, inhaled in very low doses or produced endogenously by type 1 haem oxygenase, can suppress hypoxia-induced fibrin deposition in mammalian lungs,11 and this has led to proposals that low-dose CO may have therapeutic value in cases of vascular ischaemia and, inter alia, the prevention of thrombosis (e.g. Mishra et al. 2006). At present, however, we are considering the injurious effects of CO and will defer discussion of the hypothetical therapeutic mechanisms explored by Mishra et al. (2006).12

Temporal and Spatial Characteristics

Epidemics of rickettsialpox are well described (6,9,10). Because this disease is an arthropod-borne zoonosis, ecological factors that govern populations of rodent reservoirs or their ectoparasites undoubtedly influence the emergence of this disease in human populations. During the epidemiologic investigation of the sentinel New York City outbreak in 1946, tenants of Kew Gardens housing development reported sightings of mice in courtyards and some apartments however, mice were particularly abundant in the basements of these buildings, which also housed incinerators that were connected by a chute to the upper floors and functioned to burn household garbage for the six to nine families that resided in each building. The proper functioning of the incinerators required a laborer to regularly ignite the trash and routinely clean the incinerator to ensure that garbage did not accumulate in the upper compartment. Because of a workforce shortage during World War II, incinerators were not...

Why Take Ethics Seriously

The strongest reason for skepticism about the relevance of ethics to human cloning was that a large number of people in positions of authority doubted that ethics would make any difference to the pace or path that cloning took. This form of skepticism is present in the commonly voiced concern of politicians, policy makers and scholars that ethics seems always to trail behind the latest scientific or medical breakthroughs (Fox and Swa-zey, 1992 Silver, 1997), and that there is no reason to presume ethics will prove more potent with respect to human cloning than it has in curbing, modifying, or stopping any technology in biomedicine in the years since the Second World War. Similarly, ethics is most noticeable with respect to the role it plays in shaping science when it is not present or present in a very different form. The inhumane experiments conducted in the German and Japanese concentration camps by competent scientists and physicians and public health officials during the Second...

Triggers Of Myalgias Subcutaneous Nodules In Korean War Mechanic

Relapsing fever was reintroduced into the United States by Irish immigrants, resulting in outbreaks in Philadelphia in 1844 and 1869, and in New York in 1847 and 1871. There was an extensive epidemic in Finland in 1876-77. Egypt, Russia, central Europe, and Poland all suffered great epidemics during World War I, and widespread outbreaks occurred in Russia and central Europe in 1919-23. There were further outbreaks in the Middle East, notably in Egypt, after World War II. The disease was shown to be endemic in China along the Yangtse River in the 1930s, and its appearance in Korea after the Korean War suggests that a Chinese focus persists.

Historical overview of vascular anastomoses

To find new consistent proposals as alternative to suture technique, we must wait until 1942. Blakemore 11 advanced Payr's technique using vein-graft-lined rigid vitallium tubes to bridge arterial defects and World War II allowed clinical trials of both suture and non-suture techniques (Fig. 5). Initially designed to bridge arterial defects, the technique was also used to facilitate end-to-end anastomoses such as in porta-cava anastomoses.

History Of Wound Management

The work of these French military surgeons remained largely unrecognized until World War I. Col. H. M. W. Gray described the practice of wide excision of a wound with a V -inch margin of normal tissue, with immediate primary closure (14). Depage (9,10,14), a Belgian surgeon reintroduced the term debridement. Dean Lewis and E. H. Pool, US military surgeons,

Series Introduction

American psychiatry was preoccupied with schizophrenia in the decades following the second World War. Nathan Kline's published pr cis of Eugen Bleuler's great work, followed closely by Joseph Zinkin's full translation of it as Dementia Praecox, or the Group of Schizophrenias, stimulated interest, and most patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals (in the era before the spread of general hospital units) were so diagnosed. Kraepelin was a relatively forgotten man. The introduction of lithium and of effective antidepressants, and the findings of the joint British-American study of diagnosis, redirected attention to the affective disorders. Bleuler and his schizophrenias moved to the back burners of research and clinical interest. This shift of focus was reinforced by the growing awareness of the inadequacies of our research methods in investigating such a complex problem as schizophrenic illness.


Tific research teams were dispatched to study sleeping sickness. They began with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine's expedition to Senegambia in 1901 and the Royal Society's expedition to Uganda in 1902 other expeditions followed until World War II. After World War I and the formation of the League of Nations' Health Organization (the antecedent of the World Health Organization), two major conferences in 1925 and 1928 were convened to focus on African sleeping Epidemics continued throughout much of the colonial period, especially prior to World War II, when there were serious outbreaks in both West and East Africa. Public-health regulations to control the disease affected other areas of administration. In some colonies, sleeping sickness programs became so extensive and bureaucratic that they came into conflict with other departments, exacerbating competition for scarce staffing and financial resources within colonial administrations. In addition, sleeping sickness regulations...

Product 2254RP

During the height of World War II in France, Janbon and colleagues at the Infectious Disease Clinic of the Medical School in Montpellier quietly studied the effects of a compound that held out promise as an antibiotic.* An offshoot of the new class of sulfonamides, compound 2254RP was quite possibly a new treatment for typhoid fever. However the researchers were unable to maintain focus on the antimicrobial abilities of this agent because of its production of seizures. Even patients with no known medical history of epilepsy would commonly experience profound convulsions after the institution of 2254RP.

Roots of the DSMIV

The roots of the DSM-IV extend back to nineteenth-century German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, who believed strongly in the detailed medical and psychiatric histories of patients, emphasized thorough observation of signs and symptoms, and considered some disorders, including prominently the psychoses, to be diseases of the brain. Despite a few earlier unsuccessful efforts, it was not until the end of World War II that representatives of the War Department, the Veterans Administration, and the civilian psychiatric community in the United States began discussing the creation of a national nomenclature that could simultaneously serve their diverse needs. The result was a syndromally based nomenclature, the DSM-I (ApA, 1952).

Alkylating agents

These drugs were the first non-hormonal drugs to be used to treat cancer effectively. They were developed after the observations that sulphur and nitrogen mustards used during World War I caused bone marrow suppression and lymphoid aplasia. Trials in patients with lymphoma demonstrated regression of tumours and this prompted the search for more effective but less toxic nitrogen mustards (Colvin, 2000). Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent used to treat many different cancers, including lymphoma, breast and lung cancer. It is a prodrug, which means that it must be activated before it becomes cytotoxic. Its mechanism of action is cell cycle phase

The Initial Schism

Einstein, in 1905, and again during World War I, said that observational scientists maintained an unjustified reliance on the power of observation. Two observers could watch an event and come to different conclusions according to Einstein both would be right. The difference in these observations resided in the characteristics of the observation point, not the observational prowess of the observers. According to the new laws, physical findings and measurements could no longer be trusted. Concepts easily understood and taken for granted for centuries were found to be inconstant merely a function of the observation point of the viewer.

Family Therapy

The field of family therapy began to burgeon in the 1950s, partially because those who were to become the early pioneers were not satisfied with the slow progress they made when doing individual therapy or psychoanalysis, and because they recognized that the impact that changes in the patient had on family members could be great. If the significant others had no place to discuss what was occurring and their reactions to it, they might sabotage treatment therefore, it would be better if they were part of the process. Moreover, there were huge waiting lists at agencies after World War II, so seeing couples or families together seemed a justifiable way to cut the patient backlog. Earlier roots of the family therapy movement existed in the child guidance movement, even though in child guidance clinics a psychiatrist usually saw the child while a social worker saw the parent, concurrently and not conjointly, and conjoint sessions would be the model in the emerging field of family therapy....

Preventative Therapy

The difficult issue in screening is that there is no definitive therapy. Before therapy, the prophylactic administration of steroids has no proven benefit and may present potential risks. A study of inhaled fluti-casone propionate, however, demonstrated some potential benefit with reduction of acute pneumoni-tis in patients treated for breast cancer 83 . Confirmation of this benefit and whether like interventions can reduce long-term pulmonary sequelae requires further study. The role of amifostine as a radiopro-tector in preventing lung toxicity has been investigated. Amifostine is a sulfhydryl compound that was originally developed as an agent to protect against ionizing radiation in the event of nuclear war 27, 121 . It was also found to protect normal tissues from toxicities of radiotherapy for head and neck tumors 15 ,alkylating agents and cisplatin 148,154 .Recent clinical studies have shown a reduction in pneumoni-tis using amifostine in chemoradiation treatments for lung...


In the early part of the 20th century syphilis was endemic throughout Europe, North America, and probably most of Africa and Asia, and the extent of the problem became apparent with the development of serological tests. The problem was exacerbated by social breakdown and huge population movements during the First World War (Adler, 1980). Following the First World War, the availability of clinical services and social stabilization led to a reduction in the incidence of syphilis. However, this was short-lived and syphilis incidence increased rapidly during the Second World War (Aral and Holmes, 1990). After the Second World War, syphilis again declined rapidly as a consequence of the availability of clinical services, and in particular the introduction of penicillin (Adler, 1980). In the 1960s and 1970s there was an increase in syphilis in many parts of the developed world, particularly in males, largely as a consequence of homosexual sex (Mindel et al., 1987 MMWR, 1984). Most of this...

Colorectal Trauma

The history of colon trauma is very old, with at least one reference to it in the Old Testament (2 Samuel 20 9-10). Colorectal trauma was nearly uniformly fatal during the American Civil War, but the mortality rate declined during World War I. In World War II, the mortality rate declined again to about 25 to 30 as a result of the regular availability of blood transfusion and the standard practice of fecal diversion. Patient transportation during the Korean and Vietnam wars, as well as the continued refinement of resuscitation and the judicious individualization of colorectal wounds, led to a further increase in survival rates. The mortality rate has reached about 3 in the civilian scenario. In the United States, trauma is the major cause of death in individuals younger than 40 years and accounts for nearly 150,000 deaths a year, with a greater loss of years of expected life than for cardiovascular disease and cancer combined.

Family Institution

Before the 1940s, only a small percentage of women were in the job market, mostly doing office work. The basic paradigm before World War II was that women belonged at home with the children and the men were the breadwinners. At the time, this was an acceptable way of life. By 1950, however, a paradigm shift occurred. More women were entering the professional world. Many women entered the labor market so the family could have extras, but later the second income became a necessity to survive the economic crunch.

Training Models

Since the end of World War II, a number of conferences (often known by the location where they were held, such as the Boulder, Vail, Swampscott, or Norman conferences) and articles emanating from these conferences have defined models of clinical, counseling, and community psychology training programs. These models usually invoke an image of training that weaves together didactic and applied competencies. The didactic components include mastering research and statistical analysis as well as basic processes such as learning, cognition, psychopathology, and psycho-physiology. The applied components include interviewing, assessment, and psychotherapy. David Shakow (1969) developed a model curriculum in which the student begins clinical training concurrently with his or her didactic studies. The student's initial exposure to clinical work might take the form of sitting in with experienced interviewers, assessors, and psychotherapists. In subsequent years the student usually takes on more...

Sexual Subcultures

Women who prefer same-sex erotic and love-activities, exclusively or occasionally, used to be called romantic friends in Victorian times. Even more so than males, they were a secret minority in the West whose visibility became public only after World War II. Into the 1970s they were lumped with males as female homosexuals or female gays. Later, for political reasons they preferred to be called lesbians because it gave them identity as a group. They often prefer that the term gay refer only to males. Although many common needs exist among male and female homosexuals, lesbians have some special needs. In particular, they feel most strongly about not being stereotyped. As with individuals of any other grouping, they can be feminine or macho, conservative or liberal, devout or atheist, uninterested in orgasm or orgasm-driven, promiscuous or monogamous, in the closet or out of it, and attractive or plain. Their motivations or reasons for identifying with the lesbian community are often...

Recent Issues

Harlow's studies reported that peer groups could contribute to the socialization process of baby rhesus monkeys without a mother. Even in the concentration camps of Germany during World War II, groups of adolescents helped each other, and many children are believed to have survived as a result of such peer bonding. Similarly, countries as diverse as Brazil, Kenya, and Egypt have adolescents living

Unethical Research

Kennedy and Grubb (2000) suggest that the greatest incentive to regulate healthcare research was awareness of the atrocities committed during the Second World War in the name of medical research. According to Evans and Evans (1996), 23 doctors were convicted at the Nuremberg trials. Their deeds included freezing subjects in an attempt to discover the most effective means of treating hypothermia deliberately infecting subjects with malaria with the aim of discovering suitable vaccines and inflicting and subsequently infecting wounds to test the efficacy of sulfanilamide as an antibacterial agent. Not surprisingly, many of the subjects died all suffered immeasurably. The research did, however, provide useful knowledge and the doctors were able to provide more effective treatment for German troops. It is a chilling fact that valuable knowledge can be obtained relatively easily if researchers have no concern for the welfare of their subjects.


The SCL-90-R and its companion scales represent the current expression of a long measurement tradition. This progression proceeded most directly from a self-report instrument termed the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) developed by Derogatis and his colleagues several years earlier than the SCL-90-R. The HSCL shares common characteristics and item content with a number of prior self-report instruments, most notably the Cornell Medical Index developed several decades before. A number of SCL-90-R items can be traced all the way back to the original self-report symptom inventory, Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet, developed to screen American Expeditionary Force soldiers for psychiatric disorder in World War I.


Since psychosurgery for psychiatric patients has often been performed on apparently normal brain tissue, its practice has generated considerable controversy. The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research supported several intensive investigations on the use and efficacy of psycho-surgery. As indicated in a resultant report by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare and the follow-up reports published in Valenstein's book (Valenstein, 1980), the Commission considered many pros and cons, including risks and benefits. Opponents of the use of psychosurgery have compared it to the abuses of human subjects in biomedical experiments carried out in Germany during World War II. Those in favor of psychosurgery have argued that its prohibition would rob patients oftheir right to effective medical treatment by limiting the scope of procedures available.

Sleeper Effect

The term sleeper effect was first used by Hovland, Lums-daine, and Sheffield (1949) to describe opinion change produced by the U.S. Army's Why We Fight films used during World War II. Specifically, Hovland et al. found that the film The Battle of Britain increased U.S. Army recruits' confidence in their British allies when the effect of this film was assessed nine weeks after it was shown (compared to an earlier assessment).

Sickle Cell Disorders

In Africa, after World War II, surveys established that across a broad belt of tropical Africa, more than 20 percent of some populations were carriers of the sickle-cell trait. Significantly, a high frequency of sickle trait was also found among whites in some areas of Sicily, southern Italy, Greece, Turkey, Arabia, and southern India. Yet, by contrast, sickling was virtually absent in a large segment of the world extending from northern Europe to Australia. These observations led to several hypotheses about where the mutant gene had had its origin and how such high frequencies of a deleterious gene are maintained.


In the United States, one popular use of the concept of propaganda is to describe persuasive communications with which we are not in sympathy. If someone else does it, it might be described as propaganda, with negative connotations. If we do it, the communication will be designated in some other way. Thus, the official vehicle for American overseas propaganda in World War I was called the Committee on Public Information. Propaganda use increases in wartime, as one indirect method of fighting the war. In a war situation, white propaganda identifies its source, gray propaganda gives no source, and black propaganda attributes the material to a source other than the one that actually produced it. The first systemic study of wartime propaganda was conducted after World War I by H. D. Lasswell. He studied each side's success in achieving four objectives demoralizing the enemy, mobilizing hatred against the enemy, maintaining the friendship of neutrals, and possibly obtaining their...

Amphetamine Analogs

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) have undergone a major resurgence among adolescents and young people in their early twenties. MDMA is used frequently at raves and has become a major public health issue in some communities. METH is also widely used in California and in some midwestern states, where it is synthesized in basement laboratories. It has been predicted that these drugs will replace cocaine as the major drugs of abuse in the 1990s. In Japan, METH abuse has been rampant since the end of World War II.

William C Summers

For example, one of the century's greatest physicists, who thought seriously about biological problems, was Niels Bohr. His essay, ''Light and Life,'' published in 1933 (2), was said to have been highly influential on the thinking of many physicists. Leo Szilard, the inventor of the nuclear chain-reaction, became involved in full-time radiobiological research after World War 2 when he decided to take up biological problems after his wartime work on nuclear physics. In France, Marie Curie undertook biological studies of radiation based on target theory models, and Fernand Holweck, another brilliant physicist of broad interests, collaborated with biologists at the Institut Pasteur, including Salvador Luria, a medically trained physicist working first in Rome, then in Paris, and finally in the United States, to study virus structure and function in the late 1930s using formal target theory.

Albert Starr and the

Cessful engineer, and although he was wearing the typical Oregon golfer's dress, he was very accomplished and had numerous inventions to his credit. One of them was a fuel injection system for rapidly climbing aircraft during World War II. The P-38 and many of our fighter aircraft had his fuel injection system, and a good part of the successful war effort, at least as far as the air war is concerned, is credited to his fuel injection system. In the Battle of Britain, the Spitfires had his fuel injection system, and that enabled them to get up to very high altitudes very rapidly without the system failing.

Q Fever In Wartime

Christopher et al. (75) reviewed the literature of the importance of Q fever during wartime. They infer that Q fever may have been a significant factor during the American Civil War. During World War II, outbreaks of Q fever occurred among American and British soldiers in Greece and Italy, and among American soldiers in Panama. The Axis troops in Bulgaria, Greece, Crimea, and the Ukraine also suffered from Q fever during this war. Seven outbreaks among U.S. troops in the Mediterranean theater resulted in more than 1000 serologically confirmed cases. Cases were epidemiologically linked to occupancy of barns and two-story dwellings where the bottom story served as a barn. After World War II, an explosive outbreak occurred among troops in Libya, and most recently cases were acquired during Operation Desert Storm. Q fever cases were diagnosed at four United Nations stabilization bases in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1997.

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