Clinical Signs of Wound Infection

It is essential that wound infection is recognized and diagnosed as early as possible, before systemic sequelae develop as wounds with uncontrolled infection, which might lead to toxemia, tissue loss, and death. The classic signs of inflammation (red, hot, swollen, painful) are generally present following acute infection with nonspecific bacteria. Chronic wounds may only manifest subtle signs, such as impaired progression in the rate of wound healing. Malaise, diminished appetite, and lethargy,...

References

Steed DL, Donohoe D, Webster MW, et al. Effect of extensive debridement and treatment on the healing of diabetic foot ulcers. J Am Coll Surg 1996 183 61-641. 2. Argenta LC, Morykwas MJ. Vacuum-assisted closure a new method for wound control and treatment clinical experience. Ann Plast Surg 1997 38 563-576. 3. Morykwas MJ, Argenta LC, Shelton-Brown EI, et al. Vacuum-assisted closure a new method for wound control and treatment animal studies and basic foundation. Ann Plast Surg 1997 38 553-562....

Coagulation Hemostasis

Wound Healing

Coagulation rapidly slows bleeding and prevents hemorrhaging from the wound but also provides to the wound surface various components that are essential for healing. Platelets aggregate at the site of injury and form a hemostatic plug. The coagulation process activates thrombin, which The sequence of molecular and cellular events in normal (acute) wound healing. The sequence of molecular and cellular events in normal (acute) wound healing. converts fibrinogen to fibrin, which then polymerizes...

Inflammatory Phase

During the inflammatory phase, initiated by blood clotting and platelet degranulation, there is vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, which give rise to the visible signs of inflammation erythema, swelling (edema), and a rise in temperature in the injured tissue. At the molecular level, the release of growth factors from platelets is responsible for inducing vasodilatation and an increase in blood flow to the site of injury. Vascular permeability is also increased, enabling an...

Staging The Decubitus Ulcer

The decubitus ulcer is assessed by the location, size, depth, and degree of the tissue (and boney) necrosis associated with this wound. The current staging recommendations for decubitus ulcers have been developed by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Committee (NPUAC). Decubitus or pressure ulcers are normally described within one of four stages of progressive pathology Stage I nonblanchable erythema of intact skin, considered the heralding lesion of impending skin ulceration. Discoloration...