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Breastfeeding In Earlier Epochs

Until the late 18th century, it was the social norm for upper and middle class mothers to employ wet-nurses rather than breastfeed their infants themselves. In the regions quoted above, however, infants were not breastfed at all. Particularly here in Southern Bavaria, they were fed almost exclusively with a flour pap, with or without addition ofmilk. It was already mentioned in 1524 that bteastfeeding was rare in this region 22,We have some indirect evidence that in many other countries the situation was not much better. For instance in Britain, there are gravestones from the 17th century with inscriptions like this she died and left 8 children, 7 of them she nourished with her own breasts 3. A clear indication that this was rather an exception. Other hints are given by the fact that doctors repeatedly wrote articles, proclamations and appeals to encourage women to breastfeed their infants themselves. A medical history study ofthe time period between 1750 and 1800 about the situation...

Heredity and evolution

A pioneer of these hereditary and evolutionary arguments was Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, a French scientist of the mid-eighteenth century. Unfortunately, the outstanding insights of Maupertuis became neglected for a long time because he fell out with the French philosopher and writer, Voltaire, who subjected him to public ridicule and humiliation during his lifetime. Maupertuis's reputation never quite recovered from Voltaire's onslaught and his contributions have only come to be appreciated more recently.

Getting Started in Medical Writing

Does being a clinician make you or me a capable medical writer No, it doesn't, any more than being a physician qualifies me to be a good stock picker, business manager, or even vacation planner. It only means that I have medical knowledge and skills, and am trained to care for patients. On the other hand, just because you are a clinician who sees patients daily does not mean that you cannot become a capable, even great, writer. Being that great writer requires knowledge, skill, experience, the capacity to endure rejection, and a strong will to succeed. The knowledge part includes both medical and writing knowledge. Let us assume that, by virtue of your clinical practice, you have the medical knowledge. Then what you must master are the body of information and the technical skills that can help you become a great writer. You must know how to assemble and use basic writing resources. You also need to understand key issues in medical writing such as how to get started and how to get...

From Organisms To Ecosystems

How can anyone begin to comprehend the rich variety of life on Earth There are many different ways of learning about life, as well as understanding and appreciating it. An artist, a writer, and a biologist use different modes of study and different ways of reporting their understanding of life.

Writing and You Who Writes

Is there a profile of the medical writer There is no single right type of person who chooses to write. However, there are degrees of fit between a person's preferences and characteristics desirable for writing. It goes beyond mere technical skills. Writing may be an opportunity for you to use your talents and give you great satisfaction while others will describe writing as frustrating and stressful. Most importantly, you need to be aware of your own preferences, strengths, and priorities. Psychological inventories, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), have described personality types that tend to be most attracted to writing as being creative, adaptable, and eager to take on new challenges (INFP, ENFP, INTP, ENTP, in MBTI terminology).8 If you are writing to a deadline, as for books or magazines, your organizational and time management skills are also factors in your potential success.

Cells And Their Components

Details of cell structure have emerged progressively since the beginning of the 19th century. Although a general 'cell theory' is often attributed to Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881) and Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) because of their pronouncements in 1839, earlier writers had also drawn attention to the cellular basis of tissues, for example, the zoologists Lorenz Oken in 1805,3 and Jean-Baptiste de Monet de Lamarck in 1809.4 The botanist Robert Brown (1773-1858), who accompanied Matthew Flinders in the circumnavigation of Australia between 1801 and 1803, identified the nucleus in 1831.4,5 Furthermore, he reported the occurrence of a nucleus as a constant feature of almost every cell. The nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm, and the movement of cytoplasm around a living cell was evidently first recorded by Wilhelm Hofmeister in 1867.6 The dynamic nature of the living cell is often overlooked as we study micrographs or line diagrams, which can only represent 'snapshots' of a thin slice of...

Summary And Conclusions On The Importance Of Symptom Clusters

Observations about symptom expression in schizophrenia date back over 100 years. Despite significant developments in symptom measurement (e.g., detailed and reliable rating scales) and analysis (e.g., sophisticated factor-analytic techniques), it is remarkable how many similarities there are between the current empirically derived symptom clusters in schizophrenia and the observations of early writers. As noted in Table 8, current work suggests that the unique core syndrome of schizophrenia consists of dimensions of positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms. Further work using instruments (e.g., the PANSS) sampling symptoms shared with other disorders suggests the presence of other clusters that may include dimensions such as dysphoric mood depression, activation or excitement, and autistic preoccupation (48,49).

Basic Specialty Specific Medical Reference Book

Every medical writer needs a basic reference book in his or her specialty. Each specialty has at least two such books. In internal medicine, for example, the basic reference books are Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (published by McGraw-Hill), Cecil Essentials of Medicine (published by W.B. Saunders), and Kelley's Textbook of Internal Medicine (published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins). This gives you a chance to check your clinical data and recommendations against what's generally accepted in the field. Of course, a textbook begins to go out of date as soon as the ink on the pages is dry, and you should make a commitment to buy each new edition as it is released. Still, you will find your omnibus specialty reference book very important to have at hand when needed.

Cerebral Localization

Ized perception in the two lateral ventricles, cognition in the middle ventricle, and memory in the posterior ventricle. This early localization theory was also embraced by St. Augustine (354-430), and it was broadly accepted in its general form for more than 1,000 years (i.e., some writers varied the ventricles that were associated with these particular functions).

The evolution of pattern

As the art of silk-weaving spread westwards, other countries started to imitate the Muslim fabrics, including the various inscriptions. Being incomprehensible in medieval Europe, the written characters eventually degenerated through successive copying into meaningless scribbles (Fig. 3.10). Various stages in this degeneration can be followed in the silk fabrics themselves, as well as in representations of them in paintings or carvings. In the carving of a veil, shown in the right part of Fig. 3.10, the artist seems to have been dissatisfied with the confused pattern and tried to bring it nearer to convention by making it look more like western script. Some early writers on Gothic art spent fruitless hours trying to decipher the meaning of these strange characters, not realising that they were debased versions of Arabic.

Mental Spatial Inferences

When people are asked to describe environments that are too large to be seen at a glance, they do so from one of two perspectives (Taylor & Tversky, 1992a, 1996). In a route perspective, people address the listener as you, and take you on a tour of the environment, describing landmarks relative to your current position in terms of your front, back, left, and right. In a survey perspective, people take a bird's eye view of the environment and describe locations of landmarks relative to one another in terms of north, south, east, and west. Speakers (and writers) often mix perspectives, contrary to linguists who argue that a consistent perspective is needed both for coherent construction of a message and for coherent comprehension (Taylor & Tversky, 1992, 1996 Tversky, Lee, & Mainwaring, 1999). In fact, construction of a mental model is faster when perspective is consistent, but the effect is small and disappears quickly during retrieval from memory (Lee & Tversky, in press). In memory...

Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals

The Uniform Requirements is a document approximately 31 pages long one cannot search it. It is the Bible for the serious medical researcher, writer, and editor. I urge you to go to the Web site http www.icmje.org and print a copy. You will use it often to answer questions, especially when writing reports of clinical research. What is it The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals9 tells medical writers how to prepare their manuscripts. Topics are listed in Table 1.3. The section Requirements for Submission of Manuscripts has excellent discussions of manuscript preparation, authorship, the various components of a research report (more on this in Chapter 9), and a section on how to cite references that you will find very valuable when working on your manuscripts. The Medical Writer's Three Questions In Puccini's opera Turandot, the Princess Turandot asks Prince Calef three questions, framed as riddles. If the love-struck prince answers the three queries...

Appearance of Statistical Significance

If one in twenty does not seem high enough odds, we may, if we prefer it, draw the line at one in fifty (the 2 per cent point) or one in a hundred (the 1 per cent point). Personally, the writer prefers to set the low standard of significance at the 5 per cent point, and ignore entirely all results which fail to reach this level) 3 .

The Maturation of the Circulation Hypothesis

1 Scientific words, verbs in particular, are often metaphorical, or in some instances allegorical an electron jumps orbit, an atom is excited, a computer programme is self-teaching, a cannon ball describes a parabolic curve, etc. But provided that the signification of a word in its context is clear to both writer speaker and reader listener - i.e. provided that it is closely defined - our normative proposition holds.

Writing Models for Beginners

The leading models appropriate for neophyte writers are review articles, case reports, editorials, letters, and book reviews. All are covered in depth in later chapters in the book. The review article is appealing because advertiser-supported publications, sometimes called throw-aways, have a constant appetite for content. Examples of such publications are Postgraduate Medicine, Consultant, The Female Patient, Hospital Practice, and Resident and Staff Physician. All have Web sites for those who want to learn more. Case reports are tempting, and are sometimes a good way to get started as a writer. Be sure of two things One is that you have a point to make about the case the So what question again. The second is to be sure that your target journal(s) actually publishes case reports not all journals do so. That is the Where will my article be published question once more. Book chapters are almost always invited, and book editors choose prospective authors from those writing on the topic...

Heterosexuality Sexual Behavior

The idea that sex is strictly for reproduction has deep historical roots in Western culture. Early Christian writers such as Thomas Aquinas promoted the view of sex as sinful, justifiable only in marriage for the purpose of procreation. Greater knowledge, technical advances in contraception, media awareness, and legal decisions have allowed

Origin and Development

Idiodynamics had its origin in three areas of empirical investigation (1) the experimental redefinition of clinically-derived psychoanalytic concepts (2) the intensive study of individual mental patients, to obtain an anamnesis through interviews, and by administering projective and psychometric techniques and (3) the reconstruction of the life and work of creative writers, and selected patients, through an approach called psychoarchaeology. The earliest contribution was a formulation by Rosenzweig in his essay, The Experimental Situation as a Psychological Problem (1933). It systematically examined the previous methodological literature of experimental psychology in relation to the evidence of the writer's own recent experimental research. The standpoint was that of the reciprocal interactions of the observer and the subject. These interactions were schematically classified, the terms observer and subject being replaced by experimenter (Er) and experimentee (Ee). It was shown that in...

Getting from Genes to Behavior

The writer would have us understand that the existence of alternative behavioral choices, to be exercised with the benefit of learning, places the behavioral program beyond the reach of natural selection and therefore outside the concern of evolutionary biologists. That is what he seems to mean, and yet he also acknowledges a role for evolution when he writes Before we proceed further, we had better examine this last statement closely, because it contains a serious confusion. What are the relationships of closed and open behaviors to the genes The writer, I submit, has it precisely backward. In explaining why, I am hard pressed to improve on Richard Dawkins's brief but eloquent description

Current Controversies

Beginning writers often make the following mistakes in defining the concept and structure of their articles Attempting to write without an outline. Maybe some creative and experienced writers can do so, but for the beginning medical writer, an outline is a must. As I compose this chapter today, my outline is located to my left on my desk.

Literature And Psychology

The emergence of psychology as a separate discipline in the late nineteenth century brought to the forefront the relation of this new science to the humanities. Two great figures of that time, William James and Sigmund Freud, loomed large in this issue. Both were trained in medicine and psychology, but viewed themselves as psychologists both were attracted to philosophy and both were to receive renown as writers. William James's duality was mirrored in his younger brother Henry, whose reputation as a writer is based importantly on his psychological insights and understanding. It is fitting that Freud should have met William James in 1909 on his only visit to America. As he evolved psychoanalysis, he always understood that humanistic studies were vital to his thinking, and he criticized the lack of such studies in the medical curriculum, especially for the training of someone who was to become a psychoanalyst. The cornerstone of his clinical theory was the Oedipus complex, influenced...

Organizing the Paragraph

At times you will read a paper and think, This is dull. When this happens, ask yourself why. Often the answer is that the writer has written in broad general statements, and failed to provide examples to illustrate theory. This happens especially in philosophy and sometimes in the psychological literature. Medical writers are often spared this transgression because we present specific data such as laboratory tests, drugs, and doses. Nevertheless, we must be vigilant about unsupported general assertions.

Construct Sentences with Care Words per Sentence

We medical writers often write jumbled and tortuous sentences. We try to put too much into them and we forget that the best sentences contain one thought. When a sentence is too long it may become barely intelligible. As an example of an unfriendly sentence, I am going to rewrite the last paragraph on page 40. Here goes

Clinical Uses of Mental Imagery

Although imagery has been an instrument of therapeutic intervention throughout recorded history, recently interest in imagery techniques has greatly expanded and intensified. Several writers have indicated numerous characteristics of the imagery mode that make it an eminently suitable vehicle for clinical work.

Using Metaphor to Refer to Features of Things

Whereas simple referrals have one referent, metaphors have two a general referent and a specific referent. The general referent is what the speaker and the hearer are primarily talking about the general subject matter, the X which the special feature F is a feature of. The specific referent is F itself. John Wisdom asks us to suppose now that someone is trying on a hat. She is studying it in a mirror. There's a pause and then a friend says, My dear, the Taj Mahal. Instantly the look of indecision leaves the face in the mir-ror. 20 Here the general referent X is the hat, and the specific referent F is its grand, elaborate, excessive look (which Taj Mahal refers us to so efficiently). In the metaphor The hills moved in a vast herd across the horizon, the general referent is some hills, and feature F is the way the hills are disposed, massed in the distance. In the more prosaic metaphors river mouth and our team got thrashed, the general referents are respectively a river and the result...

Metaphors and Similes

Alliteration almost always annoys an audience. The previous sentence, of course, is an example of alliteration. Some authors seem drawn to this form of expression, insisting that it provides emphasis. Experienced writers tend to purge alliteration from their manuscripts.

Risks Associated With Genetic Uniformity

Many writers have assumed that there is something intrinsically unnatural and undesirable about monocultures. A monoculture on a huge scale is inadvisable, as there is nothing to temper the extremes of sun, wind or rain, all of which can have devastating effects on yield and soil retention. Monotony growing the same monoculture year after year is also undesirable, as it encourages specific pests and diseases whose tenure is not disrupted by crop rotation. But monocultures on a moderate or small scale are useful, and for some plants it is difficult to conceive of any other practical method of growing and harvesting them. As I pointed out in 1984

Sustainability And Fertilisers

The best way to increase the available nitrogen content of arable land is to grow legumes as part of a crop rotation. Legumes function as a gateway for the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nodules on their roots. Some writers have only a vague idea of what transpires, believing that the bacteria provide 'various nitrogen compounds that can be used by the plant'17 in exchange for sugar. In fact, these bacteria release ammonium ions to the plant, receiving in exchange a number of metabolites necessary for their own growth. The plants assimilate the ammonium ions with some of the proceeds of current photosynthesis, converting this simple form of nitrogen into a complete range of amino acids, proteins, cofactors, nucleic acids and pigments, eventually producing edible

Use It or Lose It Language Determines the Categories of Thought

Categories as a function of specific language spoken. For example, American English speech regularly lengthens vowels in syllables ending with a voiced consonant (e.g., ride and write) and neutralizes the t d distinction in favor of a dental flap in certain unstressed syllables. The effect is that (in most dialects) the consonant sounds in the middle of rider and writer are physically the same. Yet the English-speaking listener seems to perceive a d t difference in these words all the same, and - except when asked to reflect carefully - fails to notice the characteristic difference in vowel length that his or her own speech faithfully reflects. The complexity of this phonological reorganization is often understood as a reconciliation (interface) of the cross-cutting phonetic and morphological categories of a particular language. Ride ends with a d sound write ends with a t sound morphologically speaking, rider and writer are just ride and write with er added on therefore, the phonetic...

The claim that connectionism is unscientific

Although Fodor and Pylyshyn believe that connectionist theory is wrong, they take it seriously and present reasoned arguments against it. In the previous section I summed up one of their key arguments and explained why I think it is not a valid criticism. But this is a fair argument on both sides, with mutual respect. Quite a different sort of argument is presented by A.K. Dewdney. Instead of taking connectionism seriously, he tries to dismiss it as what he calls bad science. If his arguments had been presented by a person lacking academic credentials, I myself would not take them seriously enough to try to rebut them. But Dewdney is a professor of mathematics and former writer of the column on mathematical recreations for Scientific American, and it is quite easy to be taken in by his ridicule. Moreover, some of the arguments he presents have been put forward by other critics of connectionism. It may therefore be useful to go through them one by one.

Words that Might Annoy

Do not call an anesthesiologist an anesthetist or refer to a family physician as a family practitioner. Never write about the orthopedic surgeon as an orthopod. Some of the words that arose as managed care jargon can irritate various clinicians, and writers should think twice before using them. Table 2.3 lists words that might grate on some readers.

Theories of Legal Reasoning Formalism2

The first move toward legal realism was Sociological Jurisprudence, which was expounded most explicitly by Roscoe Pound (1912). Like Holmes, Pound felt that the mechanical jurisprudence of the formalists was out of touch with social reality and that legal scholarship and judicial norms were standing still, out of touch with exciting developments in philosophy and, particularly, the social sciences. Jurisprudence, he argued, is the last in the march of sciences away from the method of deduction from predetermined conceptions (Pound, 1909, p. 464). The strict doctrinal approach blinded legal writers to two essential considerations first, the purposes of the law - the goal of doing justice rather than following the letter of the law and second, the social, cultural, and psychological factors that influenced behavior, including the behavior of lawmakers and judges. Blind adherence to the abstract law-on-the-books might make for greater certainty and predictability, but reasonable and just...

Anhedonia When Nothing Gives You Pleasure

Different people have different ways of expressing anhedonia. You might tell your friends, for example, that you don't have any desire to do X or Y, you can't get motivated, or X or Y just doesn't hold your interest or attention. You may also notice that the sense of satisfaction from a job well done is simply gone, which is particularly debilitating in the workplace or in a place of learning. For example, artists (photographers, painters, writers, and so on) may find the passion has gone out of their work.

A41 The Metaphysical Dichotomy in Early 20thCentury Biology and Medicine

Nevertheless, there was a widespread conviction during the 1920s and 1930s that human physiology had 'outgrown' the mechanistic age. This view was far from universal some writers still extolled the virtues of a physics-based approach to physiology. Thus, two kinds of physiologists were distinguished those who believed that 'vital' processes should be investigated by the reductionist methods of physics and chemistry, and those who believed that the object of their science was the associated form and functioning of human body (cf. Thompson 1917 Cannon 1939 Eccles 1979 Faber 1987).25 In short, the two distinct, apparently incompatible, perspectives that had co-existed in the 19 th century continued into the early 20th-century physiology. One was clearly mechanistic, though much transformed since the optimistic inception of mechanistic materialism. The other, associated with the majority of physiologists, was essentially vital-materialist.26

Atomism Descartes and Gassendi

The Oxford physiologists were familiar with the full spectrum of Continental work on matter theory and the body. In the texts concerned with blood that they published during the 1650s and 1660s, Willis, Francis Glisson, George Ent, Lower, Nathaniel Highmore, and Boyle frequently cited the alchemist Franciscus de la Boe, or Sylvius (1614-1672), Descartes and his disciples Cornelis van Hooghelande and Henry Regius, Daniel Sennert (1572-1637), Pierre Gassendi, and Niels Stensen (16481686), as well as those of an earlier generation, including Jean Fernel (1497-1558) and Paracelsus. Early texts from the Oxford group tended to make indirect reference to contemporary Continental writers, especially the Cartesians. For example, in his 1641 Apologia Pro Circulatione Sanguinis, which vigorously defended Harvey's circulation theory, George Ent did not mention Descartes by name. Nonetheless, in the introduction Ent praised the work of Henry Regius, perhaps the most well-known of Descartes's...

The Medieval Plague Tract Or Consilium

But manuscripts of the Compendium circulated even more widely, influencing authors in Spain, Italy, the Holy Roman Empire, and even Poland it was still being copied for use in the seventeenth century. In Prague the imperial physician Master Gallus wrote a consilium for Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV (see biography) and a less complex Preventives and measures against the disease for the margrave of Moravia, both based on the Paris Compendium.10 At Montpellier, an anonymous practitioner, probably connected to the rival university there, wrote a critical response to the Paris tract dated May 19, 1349. Assuming he was in Montpellier as the Plague struck the city, killing the entire medical faculty in the process, his analysis and recommendations should have reflected his experience and trumped the mere conjectures of the Paris faculty. In fact, his work is every bit as reliant on medical tradition and ancient authorities as any other, though he cites Aristotle, the astrologer Ptolemy, the...

Charles IV Charles of Luxembourg 131678 Holy Roman Emperor

Before the Black Death Charles established the university in Prague (papal bull of January 1347 imperial charter of April 1348), central Europe's first university. Its dual models were those of Paris and Bologna, Europe's centers for the study of theology and law, respectively. The breadth of his intellectual interests was rare for the time, and those interests were no doubt fostered by his time in Paris. Over the three decades that followed the initial epidemic Charles spent lavishly on imperial building projects in Prague, the empire's new capital. He was also firm in his support for intellectuals and writers, such as the poet Heinrich von Miigeln, at his court. Heinrich's poem, Whoever wants to know, is an explanation of the origins of the Plague in astrological terms, and was firmly in line with Charles' interests. The fact that it was written in German also reflects Charles' concern for his empire's vernacular languages, especially Czech and German. Among many other projects, he...

Honorable Death Kamikaze Sperm

Britain.38 Indeed, their ideas are taken seriously by popular writers and physical anthropologists. Baker and Bellis's stated aims are to offer a purely scientific understanding of the reproductive behavior of humans and other animals and to possibly revolutionize the medical approach to infertility. 39 However, their interpretation of biomedical evidence is rife with sociobiological claims about how human behavior emerges from the seemingly conscious motivation of individual sperm cells. From the start, this book relies on evolutionary and genetic language, claiming that men and women are programmed to behave in predetermined ways in sexual matters. For example, human mate-guarding, whereby the male species shields the female in order to reduce the probability of sperm competition, is proposed in this book by extrapolating from squirrel data. One claim from these data and a methodologically questionable survey40 is that some form of mate-guarding behavior is a nearly universal...

Action or Non Rest Tremors TabieMB

Orthostatic tremor and primary writer's tremor are two particular forms of tremor that are highly dependent on posture. In the former, patients can usually walk with only mild discomfort, but when asked to stand in place for several seconds, they develop hard and cramping calves and thighs that shake uncontrollably. Although considered by some to be a variant of ET, this tremor does not respond to the usual drugs described above, and clonazepam (1 to 10 mg day) is usually far more effective. Baclofen can also be used. The differential diagnosis includes dystonia and stiff-person syndrome. Similarly, primary writer's tremor does not occur outside the very specific activity of writing. It is thought that the complicated posture and muscle activation of writing induces the contractions in the agonist and antagonist hand muscles that induce the tremor. Sometimes the hand cramps at the same time, suggesting the presence of an underlying dystonia. The handwriting becomes sloppy, shaky, and...

The Challenge of Creating Cultures of Thinking

Culture, construed broadly, refers to the context and general surround in which we operate. This doesn't tell us much about what it means to become enculturated, however. To illuminate this issue it is helpful to look at particular intellectual subcultures or communities of practice, say of mathematicians or writers or even mechanics. What does it mean to be a part of these cultures A frame that we have found useful is based on two top-level conceptions resources and practice (Roth, 1 995). Resources are the things upon which members of the culture of practice draw when they do their work. Resources can be physical in nature computers, books, instruments, tools, and the like. There are also social resources such as colleagues, coworkers, editors, peer-review boards, and so on. These types of resources help distribute cognition outside the individual thinker's mind (Salomon, 1993). In addition, there are conceptual resources consisting of the conceptual, knowledge, and belief systems...

The Black Death and Medieval Medicine

Greek physician Hippocrates and philosopher Aristotle and the second-century Greco-Roman physician Galen (see biography). Each of these men in turn had moved human understanding of illness beyond the mythological the gods did it to a rationally structured, if often incorrect, series of purely physical explanations. The ninth-century Muslim medical scholar Hunayn bin Ishaq al-Ibadi and his colleagues in Baghdad translated into Arabic the important works of these men and their Byzantine commentators. Later generations of Muslim physicians and writers such as the tenth-century Persians Abu Bakr ar-Razi and Avicenna and twelfth-century Avenzoar and Averroes of Cordoba, Spain, built upon these foundations by further study and, most importantly, the experience of treating patients. They also tied the theory and practice of astrology much more closely to practical medicine than had been done before. Modern medicine ascribes great influence to one's genes, and similarly...

The Medieval Physician And The Plague

Modern students of the Black Death cannot credit medieval doctors with much success. We can examine, however, whether there was any real movement away from slavish reliance on ancient authorities and toward greater trust in one's own observation and experience. This, after all, would be the heart of the later Scientific Revolution. French historian Danielle Jacquart studied three fifteenth-century physicians from France and Italy, one of whom served the duke of Savoy, another the Este court in Ferrara, Italy, and all of whom taught at Padua or Paris. She concludes that these distinguished healers and teachers were trapped in the medical world of 1348. Others, however, detect some progress. Melissa Chase studied twenty-five Plague treatises or parts of them dating from 1348 to 1420 and concluded that physicians were increasingly capable of and interested in distinguishing the Plague from other diseases, and eventually distinguishing among pestilential diseases. She credits their own...

Aetiology The Consensus Model

Since the historical record shows that venous thrombosis has defied human understanding through two centuries of thought and experimentation, we must eschew oversimplified aetiological models. Nevertheless, it is widely agreed that venous thrombi typically originate in the venous sinuses and valve pockets of the lower limb when blood movement is interrupted retarded because the 'muscle pump' of immobile patients' legs is contracting less frequently (McLachlin et al. 1960). Alternatively, some writers assert that an injured intima may itself impair circulation and cause interruption or retardation of flow. Hamby (2005), for instance, wrote 'Sometimes blood clots sic will form when blood flow merely slows down and becomes sluggish, or when the interior walls of blood vessels become damaged or roughened, though no wound has occurred. . Clots usually form when blood flow becomes sluggish, as when there is roughness or scar tissue along the interior walls of a blood vessel that slows down...

Representing Likeness

Humoral models of bodily operation existed in several ancient versions in sixth- and fifth-century B.C.E. Greek natural philosophy. Moreover, despite some faint parallels with Ayurvedic thought, humoral physiology seems unique to the West. During the second century C.E., Galen codified the Hippocratic model into a form that remained remarkably durable. After the fall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E., eastern Mediterranean scholars preserved and transmuted Greco-Roman natural philosophy, including Galen's, which subsequently influenced Islamic medicine. Animal bodies had humors that circulated throughout their interior and concentrated in a few crucial organs, or noble parts. 35 Although ancient authorities disagreed on important aspects of each of these conceptions, they shared a belief that both were operative. That is, Plato, Aristotle, the Hippocratic writers, Galen, Celsius, and others each thought that the humors, which are discussed below, had primary agency...

The crucible of the sixties

In my opinion, the book and film versions of Sybil can, at one level, be understood as a social dream, i.e., symptoms of social distress and psychopathy of everyday life. (I have elaborated on this theme at some length in my book Manufacturing Social Distress, Chapter 5, Dreams That Money Can Buy. ) The Sybil case is a quintessential example of how phony facts create phony problems that in turn create phony solutions. Sybil is a triggering mechanism in the natural evolutionary development of reported false memory, child abuse, and the misuse of hypnosis in the treatment of the mentally ill. It's little surprise then that the myth of Sybil began in the tumultuous years of the late sixties when revolution was in the air and the prevailing orthodoxy was under attack from every quarter. Writers like Thomas Szasz questioned the very definition of an illness, dismissing it as a myth. R.D. Laing questioned the nature of insanity. It was society that was sick, he asserted, not the person...

The Art Of Intercession

Some misericordias make no visual reference to the pestilence, reflecting Mary's role as a protector in general. For saints specifically associated with the Black Death many Catholics turned to St. Sebastian (see Photo 4 in photo essay) or St. Roch (Rocco, Roche, Roccus). Sebastian was a Christian soldier who was to be executed for his beliefs in the early fourth century. He survived a shower of arrows and, having been left for dead, was nursed back to health. He returned to confront the pagan emperor and was brutally beaten to death. His association with the pestilence stems from his having survived the shower of arrows. The association of arrows with divinely sent disease is ancient. The Old Testament repeatedly mentions arrows as metaphors for God's punishments, as at Deuteronomy 32 23, I will spend mine arrows upon them, or at Psalm 64 7, But God shall shoot at them with an arrow suddenly shall they be wounded, or Psalm 7 12, he hath bent his bow and made it ready. The celestially...

Biological Approaches

Medications for bipolar disorder have negative side effects. For example, lithium and divalproex sodium are associated with weight gain, nausea, and trembling. One study found that almost 60 of patients were inconsistent with their medicines in the year after their first hospitalized episode (Strakowski et al., 1998). Nonadher-ence is not only the result of side effects, however. Some patients miss their high, euphoric periods and dislike having their moods controlled by medication (Jamison, Gerner, & Goodwin, 1979). Some complain of a loss of creativity due to medications. Indeed, there is evidence of a linkage between bipolar disorder and artistic creativity, as evidenced by the number of writers, artists, and musicians who have had the disorder or a mild form of it (Jamison, 1993).

Psychologys Ambivalence

On the negative side of psychology's role, several writers, including Singer, single out psychological research for criticism beyond its proportionate share of the research enterprise. Psychology also contributed a cause c l bre of abuse (the Silver Spring monkeys) as a psychology laboratory had its major federal support grant suspended. Regarding the field's general response to the issue of psychological animal research, two psychologists chided the field for adopting a strategic defensive posture (Gluck & Kubacki, 1991, p. 158).

Psychological Approaches to the Definition of Wisdom

In a next step, psychologists further specified the content and formal properties of wisdom-related phenomena. G. Stanley Hall and other writers emphasized that wisdom involves the search for the moderate course between extremes, a dynamic between knowledge and doubt, a sufficient detachment from the problem at hand, and a well-balanced coordination of emotion, motivation, and thought. In line with dictionary definitions, such writings refer to wisdom as knowledge about the human condition at its frontier, knowledge about the most difficult questions of the meaning and conduct of life, and knowledge about the uncertainties of life about what cannot be known and how to deal with that limited knowledge (for an overview, see Sternberg, 1990).

Gentile da Foligno c 12751348 Italian Physician and Medical School Professor

Gentile was one of the fourteenth century's most famous physicians and medical writers. His early tract on the Plague had a major influence on subsequent works. He was born in either Perugia or Foligno, Italy, around 1275, to Gentile, who was probably also a physician. Young Gentile junior married Iacoba Bonimani, and they had four sons, two of whom became physicians. He was probably educated at the University of Bologna, and probably studied under Taddeo Alderotti, the era's greatest medical educator. At some point he also learned to appreciate the classical Roman literary figures, such as Seneca, whose works were just then being revived and studied in northern Italy. He remained in Bologna as a teacher and practitioner until 1322. Over the previous year or two many teachers and students had left the city, and Gentile moved to Siena to help the government establish a university. After the Sienese effort failed, the leaders of Perugia invited him to teach and perhaps serve as a public...

Psychometric Approaches

A number of investigators have studied the relationship between creativity and intelligence - at least as measured by IQ. Three basic findings concerning creativity and conventional conceptions ofintelligence are generally agreed upon (see, e.g., Barron & Harrington, 1981 Lubart, 1994). First, creative people tend to show above-average IQs - often above 120 (see Renzulli, 1986). This figure is not a cutoff but rather an expression of the fact that people with low or even average IQs do not seem to be well represented among the ranks of highly creative individuals. Cox's (1926) geniuses had an estimated average IQ of 165. Barron estimated the mean IQ of his creative writers to be 140 or higher based on their scores on the Terman Concept Mastery Test (Barron, 1963, p. 242). It should be noted that the Concept Mastery Test is exclusively verbal and thus provides a somewhat skewed estimate of IQ. The other groups in the Institute for Personality Assessment (IPAR) studies, that is,...

Mystical Approaches to the Study of Creativity

In this vein, Plato argued that a poet is able to create only that which the Muse dictates, and even today, people sometimes refer to their own Muse as a source of inspiration. In Plato's view, one person might be inspired to create choral songs, another, epic poems (Rothenberg & Hausman, 1976). Often, mystical sources have been suggested in creators' introspective reports (Ghiselin, 1985). For example, Rudyard Kipling referred to the Daemon that lives in the writer's pen My Daemon was with me in the Jungle Books, Kim, and both Puck books, and good care I took to walk delicately, lest he should withdraw. . . . When your Daemon is in charge, do not think consciously. Drift, wait, and obey (Kipling, 1985, p. 162).

Why Take Ethics Seriously

The phenomenon of the ethics lag has been accepted by many commentators on cloning as a fact (Adler, 1997 Silver, 1997). All one need do to see the depth of this belief is track any story about the ethics of any major new breakthrough in biology or medicine. It will not be many paragraphs before the writer notes either that ethics always seems to be lagging behind scientific advances or that biomedicine has outstripped the capacity of ethics and the law to keep pace. The ethics lag is a powerful presumption in American, European, and Japanese assessments of the future of biomed-icine (Adler, 1997 Weiss, 1998).

An analyst on park avenue

We know that Cornelia Wilbur first got in touch with Schreiber in 1962. Soon afterwards she introduced the writer to Sybil. To Schreiber, Sybil seemed constrained and remote, but Schreiber says she attributed her behavior to her illness. What made Schreiber decide to pursue the project was Wilbur's reputation as an analyst with a large Park Avenue practice. And the therapist was willing to provide a wealth of raw material for Schreiber to draw on a compilation of case notes taken from no less than 2354 therapeutic sessions that went back almost a decade. Because Sybil was a talented artist (and bright too, with an alleged 174 IQ) Schreiber conceived of the story as a case history that would illuminate the role of the unconscious mind in creativity.

Harvey and the Physiological Approach

We can generalise this assessment not everyone who declined to adopt a radical 'mechanist' stance (in the Cartesian sense of 'mechanist') in the 17th and 18 th centuries can be automatically labelled a 'vitalist'. The point is moot in Harvey's case. Exposed to the newly evolving metaphysic of natural philosophy from his formative years and a strong proponent of the Baconian approach to experiment, Harvey refuted Galen's account of blood movement and laid the foundations of modern physiology (see Chapter 8) but he was not a 'proto-mechanist' like the iatrophysicists and iatrochemists. Yet to deem him a 'vitalist' would not merely be anachronistic, it would be absurd it is hard to find a 17th-century writer less inclined towards mystical notions than Harvey. In refuting Galen, he distanced himself from mediaeval tradition no less sharply than those of his contemporaries whom we might term 'proto-mechanist'.

Third Chapter Food and Drink

John Lydgate (c. 1370-1450) joined the monastery of Bury St. Edmunds early in life, and never left the monastic life. He is noted today as a prolific poet, the major figure in English literature between Chaucer and Shakespeare. Some 150,000 lines of his survive, touching many subjects in every poetic format. His most notable patron was Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, owner of a huge library and pillar for many of the era's writers and scholars. At stanza 15 of this undated poem Lydgate advises against allowing divisions to develop at your court, suggesting that the work may have been written for Humphrey, or at least for a noble and his household. The prices of many of the specific foods and herbs he recommends, including potable gold, would not have been within the range of the commoner. Aside from the so-called Canutus Plague Treatise, 5 England produced no fourteenth- or fifteenth-century prescriptive Plague literature, either in Latin or in the vernacular. This makes Lydgate's...

Alternate Approaches to Understanding Kinds of Creative Contributions

There are tens of thousands of artists, musicians, writers, scientists, and inventors today. What makes some of them stand out from the rest Why will some of them become distinguished contributors in the annals of their field and others be forgotten Although many variables may contribute to who stands out from the crowd, certainly creativity is one of them. The standouts are often those who are doing particularly creative work in their line of professional pursuit. Are these highly creative individuals simply doing more highly creative work than their less visible counterparts, or does the creativity of their work also differ

Whats Special About Medical Writing

Write fiction, there is the tendency of medical authors to write as groups. Finally, we clinician-writers face a minefield of ethical issues that can impair our credibility or worse. Some medical journals are indexed and some are not those that are not would like to be. A medical journal such as Gut can be and is indexed in one of three ways Index Medicus, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). What does this all mean, and why might it be important for the medical writer Some journals post their current impact factor on their Web sites. At www.nature.com nm . the home page of Nature Medicine states that its latest available (2002) impact factor is 28.740. In an ideal world, your article will be published in the journal with the highest possible impact factor, but without making a special effort you may never learn the number and its comparators. Although the impact factor is seldom of great importance to the beginning medical writer,...

The Challenge of Transfer

This triple challenge to the prospects of transfer seems daunting indeed. However, it is important to emphasize that these critiques by and large address the prospects of far transfer. They allow ample room for CSILE, the Jasper Woodbury program, writers' workshops, design studios, philosophy classes and the like, where the aim is to get better at a particular kind of thinking.

The Psychodynamic Approach

The psychodynamic approach can be considered the first of the major twentieth-century theoretical approaches to the study of creativity. On the basis of the idea that creativity arises from the tension between conscious reality and unconscious drives, Freud (1908 1959) proposed that writers and artists produce creative work as a way to express their unconscious desires in a publicly acceptable fashion. These unconscious desires may concern power, riches, fame, honor, or love (Vernon, 1970). Case studies of eminent creators, such as Leonardo da Vinci (Freud, 1910 1964), were used to support these ideas.

History Of Wound Management

The history of wound management is essentially the history of surgery. Prior to the mid 1800s, surgery was limited to the skin and extremities. The Egyptians as early as 2000 bc and the Greeks in 500 bc performed primarily incision and drainage procedures. Hippocrates wrote the first account of primary and secondary wound healing and defined the signs of suppuration (1). Hippocrates advocated keeping wounds dry. Galen was the most prolific of the Greek medical writers. He authored 22 volumes, 2.5 million words and two-third of his work is preserved. Galen essentially abandoned his experimental findings to emphasize his theories of wound treatment. He expostulated the theory of laudable pus, that wounds needed to suppurate in order to heal secondarily (1,2). His writings were acquired by the Romans, the Byzantines, and the Islamics, and became the unchallenged basis of medical practice until Theodoric first dared to challenge them in ad 1266 (1). During the intervening 1200 years,...

History

The African lethargy, or sleepy distemper, as trypanosomiasis has been called, was well known to Europeans in West Africa from as early as the fourteenth century, through good descriptions given by Portuguese and Arab writers. For centuries slave traders rejected Africans with the characteristic swollen cervical glands, for it was common knowledge that those with this symptom sooner or later died in the New World or North Africa. As European exploration and trade along the West African coast increased between 1785 and 1840, the disease was reported in Gambia, Sierra Leone, and western Liberia, whereas between 1820 and 1870 it was also commonly noted along the Liberian coast.

Ascariasis

This nematode was known to ancient writers in China, India, Mesopotamia, and Europe and was present in pre-Columbian America. The World Health Organization has estimated that between 800 and 1,300 million people harbor an average of six worms each. The true figure may be even higher. Surveys have demonstrated infection in more than 50 percent of sampled populations in countries such as Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Iran, Kenya, Mexico, Tanzania, and Vietnam, and the rate approaches 100 percent in many rural areas. In China, it was estimated that the 1947 Ascaris population produced 18,000 tons of eggs a year they may be even more productive today. The worm is also common in developed countries, although improved sanitation has greatly reduced prevalence in recent decades.

Metaphor

Fauconnier and Turner (1998 Fauconnier, 2001) analyzed complex conceptual blends that are akin to metaphor. A typical example is a description of the voyage of a modern catamaran sailing from San Francisco to Boston that was attempting to beat the speed record set by a clipper ship that had sailed the same route over a century earlier. A magazine account written during the catamaran's voyage said the modern boat was barely maintaining a 4.5 day lead over the ghost of the clipper Northern Light Fauconnier and Turner observed that the magazine writer was describing a boat race that never took place in any direct sense rather, the writer was blending the separate voyages of the two ships into an imaginary race. The fact that such conceptual blends are so natural and easy to understand attests to the fact that people can readily comprehend novel metaphors.

Moral Narratives

Real research projects associated with cloning have evoked a similar sense of horror and dismay. As early as 1938, a British magazine called Titbits reported on research taking place at the Srangeway laboratory and tissue archive in Cambridge, England, the first laboratory devoted to tissue cultivation. The writer predicted that canned blood would be used to create new lives, and he wondered What exactly will be created Could you love a chemical baby Will the sexless, soulless creatures of chemistry conquer the true human beings 3 Dreams of such creatures have been fueled by new biological technologies associated with agricultural and fertility research. While cloning could theoretically make both sexes irrelevant to reproduction, it was suggested that the technology could be a threat to the male of the species men will no longer be necessary Writer Wendy Wasserman wondered what you would say to your shrink if you are your own mother.11 An Internet inquirer wondered If I have sex with...

Economic Narratives

For writers in the popular press, however, such technical details were less important than symbolic associations. The cloning of a lamb was immediately set in a context of other fears about genetics and genetic manipulation, and especially about rapid and sometimes startling advances in

Enterobiasis

The pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is a common parasite around the world and is the most prevalent parasitic helminth in developed countries today. Enterobiasis has afflicted humans from ancient times it was known to ancient Chinese, classical, and Islamic writers and was present in pre-Columbian America. Humans are the only hosts. Mature worms of 2-13 millimeters inhabit the cecum and adjacent regions of the intestines. Gravid females migrate out the host's anus and deposit thousands of eggs on the skin of the perianal region. The eggs mature quickly and are infectious within hours. Infection by ingestion of eggs from the hands is common, as the worms induce itching and scratching. Eggs are frequently eaten with contaminated food, and, because they are light, they are easily inhaled in household dust. Eggs hatch in the small intestine and develop into mature adults in as little as 4 weeks. Retroinfec-tion, when eggs hatch on the perianal skin and the larvae crawl back into the...

Cooperation

Some writers assume that divided-labor cooperation henceforth just cooperation is developmentally prior to concerting. Certainly, there seem to be examples of spontaneous (in the sense of innately determined) mutual coordination of behavior in the very early mother-infant repertoire and in the behavior of other mammals. I suggest we throw the term proto-cooperative over these cases and forget them.

Group Counseling

Owing to influences of group psychotherapy and group dynamics, many early writers used the terms guidance, counseling, and psychotherapy interchangeably. Continuing clarification of terms and procedures along with the pro-fessionalization of school counselors and counselors in public agencies and private practice has added acceptability and credibility to group counseling.

Eponyms

The current tendency is to replace these historic names with more scientific terms. Hence, von Recklinghausen's disease is now properly called neurofibromatosis, and Caffey's disease is infantile cortical hyperostosis. The astute medical writer should follow this lead in most cases, perhaps stating the accepted Greco-Latin phrase, followed by the historic epo-nym in parentheses for example relapsing febrile nodular nonsuppurative panniculitis (Weber-Christian disease).

Misused Words

Sometimes it is hospital team conversation showing up in manuscripts. It may be an attempt to be scientific. Perhaps the author is abusing the thesaurus. Examples of misused words include using symptomatology when we mean symptoms, using impact as a verb when the correct word would be affect, and dropping adverbs such as hopefully somewhere in an otherwise perfectly good sentence. 5. Bernstein TM. The careful writer a modern guide to English usage. New York Atheneum 1972 360.

The Future of Sperm

What are the meanings that have accrued about semen Depending on the circumstances of ejaculation, it can be desired or reviled. In order to be useful for fertility, it must be the right shape, the right speed, and in the right quantity. Reproductive scientists and zoologists have defined sperm as homunculi, eels, kamikaze fighters, and invaders. Semen banks have invented technosemen as a new and improved commodity for sale. The fatherhood rights movement advocates that semen is a man's property deserving legislative protection this belies the fear that making semen more accessible threatens traditional notions of fatherhood. Writers and illustrators of children's books depict sperm as friendly competitors and romancers following through on cross-species evolutionary drives or God's plan. Forensic scientists, at-home sleuths, and real-life crime stories have established seminal stains as the gold standard of evidence and as the ultimate link to identity. Sex workers attempt to contain...

Trichuriasis

That occurs worldwide but is most abundant in warm, moist climates. It still exists in the southern United States but in recent decades has declined there and in other developed countries with improved sanitation it is now found mostly in poor tropical countries. Adult worms range up to 2 inches long, so whipworms were probably seen by ancient observers, but they were first clearly recognized by an early Portuguese writer on tropical medicine, Aleixo de Abreu, in 1623. Several scientists described the species in the mid-eighteenth century. Archaeological evidence shows that the worm infected people in the Americas prior to the voyage of Columbus.

Conclusion

What is strikingly clear from this review is our lack of language that can encompass the multiple dimensions and infinite nuances inherent in partnerings. We can visualize the multiple axes across which relationships are constructed, including the legal, religious, and moral. Concepts of pedophilia, incest, and child molestations have been so conflated that it often becomes difficult to distinguish exactly what the focus of a discussion, study or policy actually is. Concepts of commercial sex work, trafficking, and immigration overlap these terms are used by multiple writers, researchers, and policymakers in the mistaken belief that they are referring to the same set of circumstances. Our lack of language to define our experiences has implications not only for our ability to communicate across disciplines but also for our ability to examine and address the health issues that arise in and from partnering situations and the environments in which they occur. As one writer commented,

Thought Disturbances

Some of the less serious thought disturbances are evidenced by hyperkinetic children whose attention is shortlived and whose tasks are interrupted by a seeming need to perform motor movement. Writers and composers also experience thought disturbances, such as blank periods during which, while all other normal functioning is intact, the ability to keep on with the writing or composing task seems impaired.

Normal Fatigue

Like almost everyone, both Ken and I (Sara) wage daily battles with fatigue. When Ken is tired, we assume it's because of sleep deprivation (he sleeps less than five hours per night most of the time). When I am tired, Ken suggests I get my TSH checked, only to be met with the retort, Maybe I'm just tired (As I write this, I'm just back from the lab to rule out whether my writer's fatigue is thyroid-related ) The point is this lifestyle factors are largely responsible for most people's fatigue. We are all aware of lifestyle measures that can remedy fatigue, but we ignore them because we have

Motivated Forgetting

Aless prosaic type of forgetting, however, is labeled motivated, and it has nothing to do with the passage of time or interference from subsequent experiences. Many of the original ideas regarding motivated forgetting stem from Sigmund Freud, who stated that besides the simple forgetting of proper names, there is another forgetting which is motivated by repression (Freud, 1938, p. 40). According to Freud, this is particularly the case when dealing with memories of traumatic experiences. Since Freud, many writers and memory researchers frequently mixed these two types memory failure (repression and motivated forgetting) or used them interchangeably. Some writers and researchers, however, distinguish between repression and motivated forgetting. For some, repression deals with the unconscious process of blockading potentially painful memories in order to protect the individual. Motivated forgetting, on the other hand, occurs when the individual consciously forgets about painful or...

Defining Monogamy

Pair-bonded couples, regardless of the sex or sexual orientation of the partners, have similar notions regarding the exclusivity to be maintained within the framework of that relationship and that these notions are shared by both members of the couple. Such may not be the case. As an example, 1 of 1212 married adults participating in the General Social Survey indicated that sex with someone other than one's spouse while married is never wrong (Greeley, 1994). If, in fact, this opinion is reflective of the arrangement between the individuals in the marriage, it cannot be said to represent a breach of trust, thereby constituting infidelity. Examined outside of the context of the relationship agreement, it has, however, been characterized by writers as such (Greeley, 1994).

Cyclothymic Disorder

Creativity and mental illness Prevalence rates in writers and their first degree relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1288-1292. Bertelsen, A., Harvald, B., & Hauge, M. (1977). A Danish twin study of manic-depressive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 330-351. Depue, R. A., Kleiman, R. M., Davis, P., Hutchinson, M., & Krauss, S. P. (1985). The behavioral high-risk paradigm and bipolar affective disorder VIII. Serum free cortisol in nonpatient cyclothymic subjects selected by the General Behavior Inventory. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 175-181. Depue, R. A., Krauss, S., Spoont, M. R., & Arbisi, P. (1989). General Behavior Inventory identification of unipolar and bipolar

Avoidant Personality

Cognitive and interpersonal models of APD have also been developed. In their book Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders (1990), Aaron Beck and Arthur Freeman emphasized the role of cognitive schemas that develop in response to traumatic early social experiences and or biological sensitivities. According to these writers, schemas the cognitive structures that organize experience include beliefs and rules of conduct, which for the avoidant person take such forms as If people get close to me they will reject me and Don't stick your neck out. Although accurate in an historical sense, these schemas are hypothesized to lead to distortions in processing current social information and to the adoption of maladaptive interpersonal strategies. Interpersonal writers emphasize the contribution of self-perpetuating transactional cycles to the onset and maintenance of APD. According to these writers, early social experiences lead avoidant individuals to develop beliefs about people that color...

Group Cohesiveness

What influences group cohesiveness Although Rabbie and colleagues have suggested that competition between groups has no more effect on ingroup cohesion than does intergroup cooperation, the majority of writers over the years have agreed that hostility toward an outside person or persons serves to strengthen cohesiveness within a group. To explain how individuals in a group come together to behave toward some common end, Thomas French developed the concept of focal conflict. Similar ideas have been postulated by other writers as well. In general, such notions refer to a tendency for groups to attend to topics that have relevance, often by reducing anxiety for all members. Many specialties have concerned themselves with group phenomena. Personality and psychotherapy theorists, social and organizational psychologists, anthropologists, and educational specialists are but a number of professions interested in this topic. Diverse methods and emphases have influenced conclusions. An...

Black Death

A second set of defensive reactions belonged to the realm of medicine and public health. Although both Muslims and Christians identified Divine Will as the ultimate cause of plague, most accepted that God worked through secondary causes belonging to the natural world, and this allowed them to interpret the epidemic within the framework of contemporary medical learning. Both societies shared a common medical tradition based on the works of Greek writers such as Hippocrates and Galen, which explained

Sadism

The origin of the term sadism is associated with the Marquis de Sade, a French writer (1740-1815). He wrote novels in which he describes scenes of torture and killing in a sexual context (Hucker, 1997). In the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association ApA , 1994), sadism is defined as a paraphilia and is included in the section on sexual and gender identity disorders. A diagnosis of sadism requires the following criteria over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving acts (real, not simulated) in which the psychological or physical suffering (including humiliation) of the victim is sexually exciting to the person and the fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning (ApA, 1994, p. 530). According to Dietz, Hazelwood, and Warren (1990), the essence of sadism is not the suffering of the victim but the...

The Role Of Learning

The idea that handedness is a learned characteristic has a long history. Some authors, though admitting a congenital bias toward right-handedness in some or all children, have concluded that learning is the major determinant (e.g., Humphry, 1861 Perelle et al., 1981 Provins, 1997a, 1997b), while some have strongly opposed this view (Buchanan, 1862 Annett, 1985 McManus & Bryden, 1993). Other writers have been more cautious. Heilman, Coyle et al. (1973), for example, note that ''although dexterity is normally greater in the dominant hand, one must keep in mind the possibility that dexterity is the result of preferred use, rather than vice versa'' (p. 25).

Fear and Anxiety

Anxiety tends not to lead to effective functioning. Rather, people function effectively when they believe positive outcomes are possible, and when they have self-confidence and confidence in others. When a person feels belonging, bonds with others, and contributes to the welfare of others, the individual functions effectively in many spheres of living. Contemporary writers have written about the need to belong, to feel competent, and to be self-determining, ideas that were formulated by Alfred Adler many decades ago (Adler, 1927 1959).

Concepts

Psychoarchaeology can be employed with documents such as psychotherapy transcripts, diaries, letters, and the data yielded by projective (psychological) techniques. But the most rewarding results are available in the imaginative productions of creative writers, the elite of whom are almost compulsively involved in veiled self-exposure (Rosenzweig, 1992).

Dynamic Assessment

The roots of dynamic assessment extend back into the early twentieth century, where many writers expressed their dissatisfaction with the available approaches to the measurement of intelligence (Lidz, 1987). More specifically, the fatherhood of dynamic assessment is generally assigned to both Vygotsky (1978) and Feuerstein (Feuerstein, Rand, & Hoffman, 1979). Vygotsky's notions of the zone of actual development and the zone of proximal development are definitive of these procedures. Feuerstein's descriptions of mediated learning experiences have influenced the development of the interventions offered during the assistance phases of the procedures. It was also Feuerstein who operationalized the notion of dynamic assessment in his Learning Potential Assessment Device.

Spell Checker

At this time, I should explain that I own no stock in Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers. I do happen to be one of their authors, having published three books with them in the past. I am recommending so many of their products because I believe them to be the best available, undoubtedly because LWW has developed a focused line of books that are useful to all medical writers, including transcriptionists and medical secretaries. To find the series, go to www.lww.com and then to the key word Stedman's.

Caution to Readers

For a variety of reasons, many practicing historians view the past as unmasterable.3 I think two constraints have particular relevance for this book. Cultural anthropologists who study aspects of bodily experience in cultures foreign to their own, such as Robert Desjarlais's study of body and emotion in the Nepalese Himalayas or Chi Hua's recent account of sexual practices among the Na people of China, may have to deal with some disciplinary conundrums concerning representations of an other, but at least they have the benefit of field experience of what they describe.4 Visual artists and writers of poetry and prose have the benefit of artistic license in making their bodily constructions. Religiously motivated writers concerned with the body of a divine or semidivine creature may have the benefit of their faith and theology in writing their accounts. In comparison, historians' reliance on old printed texts adds an additional level of contingency to historical interpretations, which is...